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# psych ch. 2 key term

### psych chapter 2 key terms

Question | Answer |
---|---|

hypothesis | a specific prediction about some phenomenon (if-then-) |

theory | a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another |

variable | any characteristic or factor that can vary |

operational definition | defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it |

unobtrusive measures | record behavior in a way that keeps participants unaware that they are being observed |

archival measures | records or documents that arleady exist |

informed consent | before people agree to particpate in research they should be informed aobut the studys purpose and procedures, potential benefits and risks to participants, the right to decline participation and withdraw at any time without penalty, and privacy |

descriptive research | seeks to identify ghow humans and other animals behave, particular in natural settings |

case study | an in-depth analysis of an individual, group or event. |

naturalistic observation | the researcher observes behavior as it occurs in a natural setting |

survery research | information about a topic is obtained by administering questionnaires or interviews to many people |

population | consists of all the individuals that we are interested in drawing conclusions about |

sample | a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population |

representiative sample | one that reflects the important characterists of the population |

random sampling | in which every member of the poopulation has an erqual probability of being chosen to participate in the survery |

correlation research | three componets: 1)researcher measures one variable (X) such as people's age 2) the researcher measures a second variable (y) such as self-reported datime sleepiness 3)the researcher statisticall determines whether X and Y are related |

correlation coefficient | is a statistic that indicates the direction and strength of the relation between two variables |

positive correlation | means that higher scores on one variavle are associated with higher scores on a second variable |

negative correlation | occurs when higher scors on one variavle are associated with lower scores on a second variable |

scatterplots | graphs that show the correlation between two variables |

experiment | three charactertics: munipulates one or more variables, 2) measures whether this maniputation influences other variables, 3) attempts to control extraneous factors that might influence the outcome of the experiment |

independent variavle | refers to the facto that is manipulated by the experimenter |

dependent variable | is the factor that is measured by the experimenter and may be influenced by the independent variable |

experimental group | is the group that receives a treatment or an active level of the independent variable |

control group | is not exposed to the treatment or ceveives a zerolevel of the independent variable |

rabdom assignment | a procedure in which each participant has an equal likelihood of being assigned to any one group withitn an experienent |

counterbalancing | a prodcedure in which the order of condidtions is varied so that no condition has an overall advantage relative to the others |

internal validity | represent the degree to which an experiment supports clear casual conclusions |

placebo effect | peoplle receiving a treatment show a cahnge in behavior because of their expectatioins not beacuse the treatment itself had any specific effect |

placebo | refers to a substance that has no pharmacological effect |

experimenter expectancy effects | refers to the subtle and unintional ways researchrs influence their particpants to respond in a manner that is consistent with the researchers hypothesis |

double blind procedure | in which both the partipant and experimentor are kept blind as to which experiemntal condition the participant is in |

external validity | which is the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other populations settings and conidtions |

replication | is the process of repeating a study to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated |

mode | is the most frequently occuring score in a distribution |

median | the point that divides a distribution oif scores in half when those scores are arranged in order from lowest to highest |

mean | is the arithmetic average of a set of scores |

range | which is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution |

standard deviation | takes into account how muhc each score in a distrib. differs from the mean |

inferential statistics | tells us how likely it is that our findings are merely a chance occurence |

statistical significance | means that it is very unlikely that a particular finding occured by chance alone |

meta-analysis | a stitatical procedure for combing the results of different studies that examine the same topic |

random assignment | a procedure in which each particpant has an equal likelihood of being assignmed to one group within an experiment |

descriptive statistics | allow us to summarize and descrive the characterists of a set or distribution of data |

demand characteristics | are cues that particpants pick up about the hypothesis of a study or about how they are supposed to behave |

Created by:
griffinb