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Chapter 4

Sensation and Perception

QuestionAnswer
Illusion Perception in which the way we preceive a stimulus doesn't match it's physical reality Pg 124 ; Perception in which the way we preceive a stimulus doesn't match it's physical reality
Sensation detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain Pg 124 ; detection of physical energy by sense organs, which then send information to the brain
perception the brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs Pg 124 ; the brain's interpretation of raw sensory inputs
Filling in process to where our brains reconstruct the fancy pattern missing in an pattern and fills in the empty space Pg 124 ; process to where our brains reconstruct the fancy pattern missing in an pattern and fills in the empty space
transduction the process of converting an extrenal energy or substance into electrical activity within neurons pg 125 ; the process of converting an extrenal energy or substance into electrical activity within neurons
just noticable difference (JND) the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect pg 125 ; the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect
Weber's Law there is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus intensity pg 125 ; there is a constant proportional relationship between the JND and original stimulus intensity
signal detection theory theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions pg 126 ; theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions
sense receptor specialized cell responsible for converting extrenal stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system pg 125 ; specialized cell responsible for converting external stimuli into neural activity for a specific sensory system
absolute threshold lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50 percent of the time pg 125 ; (absolute threshold) is lowest level of a stimulus needed for the nervous system to detect a change 50 percent of the time
just noticable difference (JND) the smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect
synesthesia theory regarding how stimuli are detected under different conditions pg 127 ; rare condition in which people experience cross-modal sensations.
signal to noise ratio becomes harder to detect a singal as background noise increases pg 127 ; a number might always be a certain color to someone
response baises tendencies to make one type of guess over another when we're in doubt about whether a weak signal is present or absent under noisy considtions. Pg 126 ; tendencies to make one type of guess over another when we're in doubt about whether a weak signal is present or absent under noisy considtions.
specific nerve energies States even though there are many distinct stimulus energies, the sensation we experience is determined by the nature of the sense receptor not the stimulus. pg 126 ; States even though there are many distinct stimulus energies, the sensation we experience is determined by the nature of the sense receptor not the stimulus.
phosphenes vivid sensations of light caused by pressure on your eye's receptor cells. pg 126 ; vivid sensations of light caused by pressure on your
rubber hand illusion how our sense of touch and sight interact to create a false perceptual experience. pg 126 ; how our sense of touch and sight interact to create a false perceptual experience.
psychopysics the study of how we preceive sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics pg 125 ; sensory stimuli based on their physical characteristics
lexical-taste syneshesia words have associated teastes, and in still other synesthesias, letters take on "personality traits" pg 127 ; words have associated teastes, and in still other synesthesias, letters take on "personality traits"
McGurk Effect one example of cross-modal processing that produce different perceptual expereinces than either modality provides by itself pg 126 ; effect demonstrates that we integrate visual and auditory info when processing spoke language, and our brains automatically calculate the most probable sound given the info from the two sources.
parallel processing the ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously pg 127 ; the ability to attend to many sense modalities simultaneously
bottom-up processing processing in which a whole is constructed from parts pg 127; processing in which a whole is constructed from parts
top-down processing conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies pg 127; conceptually driven processing influenced by beliefs and expectancies
perceptual set set formed when expectations influence perceptions pg 128; set formed when expectations influence perceptions
perceptual constancy the process by which we perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions pg 128; perceive stimuli consistently across varied conditions
selective attention process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others. pg 128; process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others.
shape constancy where we still see a door as a door whether it is completely shut, barely open, or more fully open, even though these shapes look almost nothing like each other pg 128; where we still see a door as a door whether it is completely shut, barely open, or more fully open, even though these shapes look almost nothing like each other
size constancy our ability to perceive objects as the same size no matter how far away they are from us pg 128; objects as the same size no matter how far away they are from us
color constancy our ability to perceive color consistently across different levels of lighting pg 128; our ability to perceive color consistently across different levels of lighting
filter theory of attention Donald Broadbent's (1957); views attention on bottleneck through which information passes. pg 129; Donald Broadbent's (1957); views attention on bottleneck through which information passes.
dichotic listening subjects hear 2 different messages, one delivered to the left ear and one to the right; when asked subjects ignore the messages delivered to one of their ears, they seemed to know little about the info to that ear pg 129; subjects hear 2 different messages, one delivered to the left ear and one to the right; when asked subjects ignore the messages delivered to one of their ears, they seemed to know little about the info to that ear
shadowing Anne Trisman (1960) replicated; they'd sometimes add in parts of the message they were told to ignore. pg 129; Anne Trisman (1960) replicated; they'd sometimes add in parts of the message they were told to ignore.
cocktail party effect our ability to pick out an important message, like our name, in a conversation that doesn't involve us. pg 129; our ability to pick out an important message, like our name, in a conversation that doesn't involve us.
inattentional blindness failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere pg 130; failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is focused elsewhere
subliminal perception perception below the limen or threshold of conscious awareness pg 130; perception below the limen or threshold of conscious awareness
change blindness failure to detect obvious changes in one's environment pg 130; failure to detect obvious changes in one's environment
binding problem one of the great mysteries of psychology pg 130; one of the great mysteries of psychology
subliminal persuasion subthreshold influences words related to thirst, such as "drink", may slightly influence how much ppl drink, but specific words related to brand names such as "coloa" don't influence beverage choice. pg 130; subthreshold influences words related to thirst, such as "drink", may slightly influence how much ppl drink, but specific words related to brand names such as "coloa" don't influence beverage choice.
extrasensory perception (ESP) perception of events outside the known channels of sensation pg 132; perception of events outside the known channels of sensation
Parapsychologist investigators who study ESP and related psychic phenomena pg 132; investigators who study ESP and related psychic phenomena
Precognition predicting events before they occur through paranormal means, that is, mechanisms that lie outside of traditional science pg 132; predicting events before they occur through paranormal means, that is, mechanisms that lie outside of traditional science
Telepathy reading other people's minds pg 132; reading other people's minds
Clairvoyance detecting the presence of objects or people that are hidden from view. pg 132; detecting the presence of objects or people that are hidden from view.
psychokinesis moving objects by mental power alone pg 132; moving objects by mental power alone
extrasensory perception created by joseph B Rhine in 1930s pg 132; created by joseph B Rhine in 1930s
Zener cards 5 standard symbols on cards helped rhine do experiment on precognition, telepathy, and clairvoyance pg 132; 5 standard symbols on cards helped rhine do experiment on precognition, telepathy, and clairvoyance
Ganzfeld technique information detected by ESP "receivers" is an extremely weak signal that's typically obscured by irrelevant stimuli in the environment; decreases the amount of extraneous noise relative to ESP signal. pg 133; information detected by ESP "receivers" is an extremely weak signal that's typically obscured by irrelevant stimuli in the environment; decreases the amount of extraneous noise relative to ESP signal.
hue color of light pg 136; color of light
pupil circular hole through which light enters the eye pg 136; circular hole through which light enters the eye
cornea part of the eye containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina pg 136; part of the eye containing transparent cells that focus light on the retina
lens part of the eye that changes curvature to keep images in focus; completely transparent pg 136;part of the eye that changes curvature to keep images in focus
pupillary reflex decreases the amount of light allowed in the eyes pg 136; decreases the amount of light allowed in the eyes
accommodation changing the shape of the lens to focus on objects near or far pg 138; changing the shape of the lens to focus on objects near or far
retina membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light to neural activity; movie screen onto which light from the world is projected pg 138; membrane at the back of the eye responsible for converting light to neural activity
fovea central portion of the retina pg 138; central portion of the retina
acuity sharpness of vision pg 138; sharpness of vision
rods receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in low levels of light pg 138; allowing us to see in low levels of light
dark adaptation time in dark before rods regain maximum light sensitivity pg 138; time in dark before rods regain maximum light sensitivity
cones receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color pg 138;receptor cells in the retina allowing us to see in color
optic nerve nerve that travels from the retina to the brain pg 138; nerve that travels from the retina to the brain
hyperopia farsightedness; results when our cornea is too flat or our eyes too short pg 138; farsightedness; results when our cornea is too flat or our eyes too short
photopigments chemicals that change following exposure to light pg 138; chemicals that change following exposure to light
rhodopsin photopignment in rods; vitamin A makes it pg 138; photopignment in rods; vitamin A makes it
ganglion cells cells in the retinal circuit that contain axons, bundle all their axons together and depart the eye to reach the brain pg 138; cells in the retinal circuit that contain axons, bundle all their axons together and depart the eye to reach the brain
blind spot part of the visual field we can't see because of an absence of rods and cones pg 139; part of the visual field we can't see because of an absence of rods and cones
feature detector cell cell that detects lines and edges pg 140; cell that detects lines and edges
simple cells display distinctive responses to slits of a specific orientation, but these slits need to be in a specific location pg 140; display distinctive responses to slits of a specific orientation, but these slits need to be in a specific location
subjective contours a phenomenon where our brain often provides missing information about outlines pg 140; a phenomenon where our brain often provides missing information about outlines
Gestalt principles rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their overall context pg 140; rules governing how we perceive objects as wholes within their overall context
Proximity objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as unified wholes pg 140; objects physically close to each other tend to be perceived as unified wholes
Similarity All things bieng equal, we see similar objects as comprising a whole, much more so than dissimilar objects pg 140; explains how if we pattern red and yellow circles randomly , we perceive nothing special. If we line them up horizontally, we preceive seperate rows of circles.
Continuity we still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them. pg 140; we still perceive objects as wholes, even if other objects block part of them.
Closure When partial visual info is present, our brains fill in what's missing. When the missing info is a contour, this principle is essentially the same as subjective contours. pg 140; closure
symmetry we perceive objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes more often than those that aren't. pg 141; we perceive objects that are symmetrically arranged as wholes more often than those that aren't.
figure-ground we make an instantaneous decision to focus attention on what we belive to be the central figure, and largely ignore what we believe the background to be. pg 141; we make an instantaneous decision to focus attention on what we belive to be the central figure, and largely ignore what we believe the background to be.
bistable image; aka fair ground ; aka fair ground pg 141; ; aka fair ground
emergence a perceptual gestalt that almost jumps out from the page and hits us all at once. pg 141; a perceptual gestalt that almost jumps out from the page and hits us all at once.
trichromatic theory idea that color vision is bases on our sensitivity to three primary colors pg 142; idea that color vision is bases on our sensitivity to three primary colors
color blindness inability to see some or all colors pg 142; inability to see some or all colors
phi penomenon discovered by Max Wertheimer; the illusory perception of movement produced by the successive flashing of images, like the flashing lights that seem to circle around a movie marquee pg 142; like the flashing lights that seem to circle around a movie marquee
monochromats who have only one type of cone and therby lose all color vision pg 142; who have only one type of cone and therby lose all color vision
dichromats have two cones and are missing only one pg 142; have two cones and are missing only one
trichromats we and our close primate relative possess three kinds of cones pg 143; we and our close primate relative possess three kinds of cones
opponent process theory theory that we perceive colors in terms of three pairs of opponent colors; either red or green, blue or yellow, or black or white pg 143; theory that we perceive colors in terms of three pairs of opponent colors; either red or green, blue or yellow, or black or white
depth perception ability to judge distance and three-dimensional relations pg 144; ability to judge distance and three-dimensional relations
monocular depth cues stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye pg 144; stimuli that enable us to judge depth using only one eye
binocular depth cues stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes. pg 144; stimuli that enable us to judge depth using both eyes.
relative size all things being equal, more distant objects look smaller than closer objects pg 144; all things being equal, more distant objects look smaller than closer objects
texture gradient the texture of objects becomes less apparent as objects move farther away pg 144; the texture of objects becomes less apparent as objects move farther away
interpostion one object that's closer blocks our view of an object behind it. From this fact, we know which object is closer and which is farther away. pg 144; one object that's closer blocks our view of an object behind it. From this fact, we know which object is closer and which is farther away.
linear perspective the outlines of rooms or builds converge as distance increases, a fact exploited by artists. We can trace most lines in a scene to a point where they meet- vanishing point pg 144; the outlines of rooms or builds converge as distance increases, a fact exploited by artists. We can trace most lines in a scene to a point where they meet- vanishing point
vanishing point point where a line meets in a scene when traced pg 144; point where a line meets in a scene when traced
impossible figures figures that break physical laws pg 144; figures that break physical laws
Height in plane in a scene, distant objects tend to appear higher, and nearer objects lower pg 144; in a scene, distant objects tend to appear higher, and nearer objects lower
Light and shadow objects cast shadows that gives us a sense of their three dimensional form pg 144; objects cast shadows that gives us a sense of their three dimensional form
convergence a phenomenon where we use our eye muscles to turn our eyes inward pg 145; a phenomenon where we use our eye muscles to turn our eyes inward
visual cliff phenomenon established by Gibson; consists of a table and a floor several feet below, both covered by a checkered cloth. A clear glass pg 145; phenomenon established by Gibson; consists of a table and a floor several feet below, both covered by a checkered cloth. A clear glass
moon illusion causes us to perceive the moon as larger near the horizon than high in the sky. pg 145; causes us to perceive the moon as larger near the horizon
Ames room illusion Developed by Adelbert Ames Jr (1946); viewed through a small peephole, makes small ppl look impossibly large and large ppl look impossibly small. pg 145; Developed by Adelbert Ames Jr (1946); viewed through a small peephole, makes small ppl look impossibly large and large ppl look impossibly small.
Muller-Lyer illusion arrows out vs. arrows in pg 146; arrows out vs. arrows in
Ponzo illusion converging lines enclose 2 objects of identical size, leading us to perceive the object closer to coonverging lines as larger. pg 146; the railroad tracks illusion
Horizontal-vertical illusion causes us to perceive the vertical part of an upside-down "T" as longer than the horizontal part, because the horizontal part is divide in half by the vertical part. pg 146;causes us to perceive the vertical part of an upside-down "T" as longer than the horizontal part, because the horizontal part is divide in half by the vertical part.
Ebbinghaus-Titchener illusion leads us to perceive a circle as larger when surrounded by smaller circles and smaller when surrounded by larger circles pg 146; leads us to perceive a circle as larger when surrounded by smaller circles and smaller when surrounded by larger circles
blindness inability to see; presence of vision is less than or equal to 20/200 pg 146; inability to see; presence of vision is less than or equal to 20/200
motion blindness patients can't semlessly string sill images processed by their brains into the perception of ongoing motion pg 147; patients can't semlessly string sill images processed by their brains into the perception of ongoing motion
visual agnosia deficit in perveiving objects; person can tell us the shape and color of an object, but can't recognize or name it. pg 147; deficit in perveiving objects; person can tell us the shape and color of an object, but can't recognize or name it.
blindsight blind ppl who've experienced damage to a specific area of their cortex can still make correct guesses about the visual appearance of things around them. pg 147; blind ppl who've experienced damage to a specific area of their cortex can still make correct guesses about the visual appearance of things around them.
audition our sense of hearing pg 148; our sense of hearing
pitch frequency of sound wave in hertz pg 148; frequency of wave
timbre complexity or quality of sound that makes musical instruments, human voices, or other sources sound unique pg 149;complexity or quality of sound that makes musical instruments, human voices, or other sources sound unique
cochlea bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing; lies in the inner ear and converts vibration into neural activity pg 149;bony, spiral-shaped sense organ used for hearing
organ of corti tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing pg 149; tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing
basilar membrane membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea pg 149; membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea
auditory nerve recieves information; travles to the brain, through the thalamus. pg 149; recieves information; travles to the brain, through the thalamus.
loudness measure of decimals; height of a sound wave pg 149; measure of decimals
pinna part of the ear we see pg 149;part of the ear we see
cochlea "snail" or "screw"; it's a spiral in shape. pg 149; "snail" or "screw"; it's a spiral in shape.
place theory specific place along the basilar membrane matches a tone with a specific pitch pg 150; basilar membrane matches a tone with a specific pitch
frequencey theory rate at which neurons fire the action potential reproduces the pitch pg 150; rate at which neurons fire the action potential reproduces the pitch
Volley theory variation of frequency theory that works for tones b/t 100 and 5000hz. ; sets of neurons fire at their highest rates, say 100 hz, slightly out of sync with each other to reach overall rates up to 5000hz pg 150;variation of frequency theory that works for tones b/t 100 and 5000hz. ; sets of neurons fire at their highest rates, say 100 hz, slightly out of sync with each other to reach overall rates up to 5000hz
binaural cue b/t our ears pg 151; where brains compare the difference of sound
monaural cues heard by ones ear only Pg 151; helps us distinguish sounds that are clear form those that are muffled due to obstruction by the ear, head, and shoulders to see where it's coming from.
sound shadow created by our head pg 151; created by our head; ear away from the direct path of the sound wave.
echolocation phenomenon where certain animals emit sounds and listen to their echoes to determine their distance from a wall or barrier. pg 151; phenomenon where certain animals emit sounds and listen to their echoes to determine their distance from a wall or barrier.
conductive deafness due to malfunctioning of the ear; deafness pg 151; due to malfunctioning of the ear; deafness
nerve deafness deafness due to damage to the auditory nerve pg 151; deafness due to damage to the auditory nerve
noise-induced hearing loss caused by loud sounds, especially those that last a long time or are repeated that damage our hair cells pg 151; caused by loud sounds, especially those that last a long time or are repeated that damage our hair cells
olfaction our sense of smell pg 152; our sense of smell
gustation our sense of taste pg 152; our sense of taste
taste bud sense receptor in the tongue that responds to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and perhaps fat pg 152; sense receptor in the tongue that responds to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and perhaps fat
papillae numerous taste buds pg 152; numerous taste buds
pheromone odorless chemical that serves as a social signal to members of one's species pg 154; odorless chemical that serves as a social signal to members of one's species
somatosensory our sense of touch, temperature, and pain pg 154; our sense of touch, temperature, and pain
vomeronasal organ located in the bone between the nose and the mouth, to detect pheromones pg 154; located in the bone between the nose and the mouth, to detect pheromones
proprioception body postion sense pg 155; Kinesthetic sense
vestibular sense sense of equilibrium or balance pg 155; "balance"
mechanoreceptors what we use to sense light touch and deep pressure; specialized nerve endings located on the ends of sensory nerves in the skin pg 155; what we use to sense light touch and deep pressure
gate control model idea that pain is blocked or gated from consciousness by neural mechanisms in spinal cord pg 156; idea that pain is blocked or gated from consciousness by neural mechanisms in spinal cord
phantom pain pain or discomfort felt in an amputated limb pg 157; pain or discomfort felt in an amputated limb
proprioception our sense of body position pg 158; our sense of body position
semicircular canals three fluid-filled canals in the inner ear responsible for our sense of balance pg 158; three fluid-filled canals in the inner ear responsible for our sense of balance
proprioceptors sense muscle stretch and force pg 158; sense muscle stretch and force
ergonomic worker friendly gadgets and tools of the trade; ranging from our body position sense to vison to build more of this pg 159; worker friendly gadgets and tools of the trade; ranging from our body position sense to vison to build more of this
Brightness intensity of reflected light that reaches our eyes Pg 136; intesisty of light
localize we use various brain centers to localize sounds with respect of our bodies. pg 150; localization of sound.
odors Airborne chemicals that interact with receptors in the lining of our nasal passages Page 152; airborne chemicals
a region of the frontal cortex s a site of convergence for smell and taste a region of the frontal cortex s a site of convergence for smell and taste a region of the frontal cortex s a site of convergence for smell and taste
gustatory cortex Activated by both tasting discusting food and viewing facial expressions of disgust pg 154; also in study guid under smell & Taste
sensory adaption activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected pg 125 ; activation is greatest when a stimulus is first detected
Created by: kreadnour