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Psychosocial & Ethic

Stigma a negative connotation; refers to something or someone with little value; a mark of shame or discredit
Stereotyping a standardized mental picture that is held in common by members of a group & represents an oversimplified opinion, affected attitude, or uncritical judgment
Prejudice preconceived judgment or opinion without just grounds or sufficient knowledge (ignorance); irrational attitude of hostility directed against an individual, group, race, or their supposed characters
Discrimination negative, differential outlook, action, or behavior against a person or group, and usually derived from prejudice; practice of discriminating categorically rather than individually
Bias an inclination of temperament toward highly personal and unreasoned distortion of judgment; an unfair preference for or dislike of something or somebody
Ethnocentrism separates members of one culture from another - "us" and "them"
Ethnorelative refers to all cultural beliefs and practices have equal value or worth
Active control
Passive victimization/need to be helped
Disability a condition of the person which may extend to a problem with an ability; loss of deviation, in either qualitative and quantitative way, the ability to perform an activity or behavior, taking into account age, gender, and physical, social, and cultural env
Handicap implies that a person with a disability may not be able to assume/achieve a role in society as a result of society's barriers
Disablement all the events that impact health-related quality of life; the process precipitated by the onset of illness or injury
Equal Pay Act 1963 ensures both men and women receive equal pay for performing similar work
Civil Rights Act 1964, Title VIII prohibits employer from refusing to hire on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, or national origin
Age Discrimination and Employment Act 1967 prohibits discrimination against persons 40 to 70 years old
Rehabilitation Act 1973 requires employers to have an affirmative action plan that includes handicapped persons
Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975 ensured children with disabilities have special education and multidisciplinary related services to meet their needs; applies to ages birth to 21 after 1986 revision
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1997 requires children with disabilities have individual care plans and strengthens academic accountability
Americans with Disabilities Act 1990-1992 requires "reasonable accommodations" for persons with a disability
Informed Consent patients have the right to be told of what is to be done to/for them, and the benefits/risks and alternatives associated therein
Standard Precautions federal mandate from the 1980s to protect health care workers from environment and/or patients
Occupational Safety and Health Administration federal and state protection for the workplace
American Hospital Association above and beyond the legal guidelines for patient protection; generally accepted as important and adopted by all institutions; 12 rights
Piaget developmentalist; suggested that as cognitive abilities develop, the ability to know the right thing to do also develops
Amoral ages 0-2
Egocentric ages 2-7; lacks morality, bends rules
Heteronomous ages 7-12; total acceptance of morality imposed by others
Autonomous ages 12 and over; internalized morality of cooperation
Kohlberg cognitive psychologist; refined work of Piaget based on his research of primarily young men and boys
Preconventional characterized by satisfying one's own needs; "I must obey the authority figure or else..."; responsive to cultural rules and labels of good and bad or right and wrong only as they relate to physical consequence of action (reward or punishment)
Conventional characterized by social convention and expectations with respect for authority and laws of society; "I probably should because everyone expects me to...""I ought to because of a duty to obey the rules.";
Postconventional characterized by conformity to ever-changing values and demands of society and a conscience that holds me responsible for doing what is right; "I may because of my role in society but often question society's values" "I will because I know it is right."
Morality made up of lots of values concerned with relations between people and how to protect quality of life for the individual or for society
Moral Thing to Do refers to laws, traditions, or customs that guide a person or society to allow for a confident course of action
Moral Sensitivity recognizing and interpreting the ethical situation; awareness of how our actions will impact others
Moral Judgment judging which action is right (or best) or wrong (or worst); judging which line of action is more morally justified given all the facts
Moral Motivation prioritizing moral values over other values such as self-interest or financial gain; wanting to care and do the best for other than oneself
Moral Character having courage and persistence to overcome distractions and implement chosen action; resisting the need to be approved or liked by others
Ethics refers to a systematic reflection on morality and the use of special methods to examine moral situations and questions assumptions about components of morality
Ethical Thing to Do means that a moral course of action chosen has been reflected upon and it remains the right thing to do
Descriptive Ethics refers to what people actually believe or how they act in moral matters
Normative Ethics asks more concrete questions related to morality and standards of rightness and wrongness
Norm basic unit of morality used in normative ethical thinking
Bioethics clinical decision making based on consideration of facts; moral decision making based on consideration of values
Teleological System act to bring about the best result or goal
Deontological act in accordance with basic duties and rights of individuals or groups
Moral Principles for the Professions Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-maleficence, Justice
Autonomy do that which enables the patient's right to choose; capacity to think, act, and decide freely and independently; having free will
Beneficence do that which is best for the patient; benefit to patient outweighs harm that may be caused to HCP/health care system; not the same as non-maleficence
Non-Maleficence above all do no harm...primum non nocere; remove/prevent any harm from happening
Justice act with fairness to all
Distributive Justice equal distribution of goods/services to all members of the group; disability parking placards to all persons with a disability
Compensatory Justice an act to make up for a past injustice; affirmative action
Procedural Justice used to be fair/impartial to several; first come, first served
Ethical Rules Based On Moral Principles Veracity, Confidentiality, Fidelity
Veracity to tell the truth and not lies; can become question of how much truth to tell; from autonomy and beneficence
Confidentiality moral obligation to keep private/confidential information concerning patients even if not specifically requested; HIPPA; exception may be if harm to the patient or others could occur from not revealing; from beneficence
Fidelity be faithful to reasonable expectations; actions are faithful to patient and to colleagues
Ends/Results Oriented Approach action which benefits the greatest; follows teleological approach
Duty Oriented Approach refer to list of principles and decide which principle is the highest; follows deontological approach
Absolute Duties are binding under all circumstances with no exception per Kant; never able to give way to another compelling moral principle or duty
Prima Facie David Ross; while it appears self evident, allows for choices among conflicting principles
Conditional Duties commitment that comes into being only after certain conditions prevail
Right to Autonomy viewed as a freedom right; patient's right to exercise choices and increase their role in healthcare decisions
Right to Healthcare considered an entitlement right; society must provide resources to ensure all persons receive the necessary care
Practice Acts state statutes that guide limits of professional obligation and responsibility for those professionals
Moral Repugnance conscious clause as result of Roe v Wade; exempts one from participation in activity with which in moral conflict
Pellegrino physician ethicist; ascending order of ethical sensitivity; to be a virtuous HCP, one must go beyond a legalistic fulfillment of law and duties
Issues/Situations one or more moral principles are present or may be challenged; while involves moral values, doesn't present difficult choices or create problems
Ethical Distress two or more moral principles create a challenge about what to do
Ethical Problems ethical temptation involves a choice between a right and a wrong
Rushworth Kidder ethicist; suggests four tests to determine temptation from dilemma: legal test, stench test, front page test, mom test, if any 'yes' not a dilemma
Ethical Dilemma two or more ethical principles conflict with each other in a given situation
Problem Solving from Purtillo gather relevant facts/info related to situation; ID type of ethical situation & principles involved; use ethical approaches to analyze situation & decide which approach will best get to the heart of the situation; explore practical alts; act; eval process
Intimate Helping involves a person(s) you love/care for deeply; willing to risk personal injury/danger to self for another person
Personal Helping involves a personal act but not at an intimate level; look at the tools used rather than the level of involvement with the other person; may be social or therapeutic
Social Helping no defined or professional skills used; usually an altruistic act in desire to benefit someone else; can be unhealthy when used to satisfy own needs
Therapeutic Helping personal but not intimate act with specific, well defined professional skills; performance or professionally competent acts to benefit patient not benefit oneself
Detrimental Dependence therapeutic helping can lead to this; refers to over-dependence and based on insecurity; unable to control level of involvement between therapist and patient; hinders or blocks patient from achieving goals
Constructive Dependence therapeutic dependence can lead to this; based on mutual respect so enhances potential of each person; acceptance of responsibility so dependent on oneself rather than other person; facilitates patient more fully realizing their goals
Perceptions patient may bring ideas about their condition influenced by culture, generations, etc; therapist may fall prey to viewing the patient as the "diagnosis" vs the "patient"
Needs patient in need of help from therapist and reassurance about impairment/functional limitation; appearance of therapist as a real professional
Stereotypical Role Expectations questionable "competence" by patient of younger therapist and/or student; appearance of therapist as a real professional
Trasnference process of shifting one's feeling about a person in the past to another person; can be positive or negative; usually involves the patient toward the therapist
Countertransference transfer feelings about a previous patient to the current patient; can be positive or negative; usually involves the therapist toward the patient
Public Relationships kept at a distance; relatively temporary in duration
Private Relationships friendships are a part of this
Sympathy "fellow feeling" appropriate in a therapeutic relationship; to feel similar feelings along with another about something outside of the self
Empathy momentary merging with another person in a unique moment of shared meaning; self-transposal can lead to empathy
Pity feeling of sympathy with condescension; distorts the objective perspective needed to help the patient
Identification process of stereotyping patient of losing sight of differences between self and/or other patients; often leads to an overfriendliness with chance of inappropriate sharing of personal information
Concern encouraging the growth or progress or the other person
Responsibility responding out of desire to meet the needs of the other person
Respect realizing the individuality of the other person
Knowledge discovering what is important to the other person
Cliche Conversation- level 5 no genuine caring; standard response to "how are you?"
Reporting Facts - level 4 nothing personal revealed; some sharing may take place
Personal Ideas and Judgment - level 3 offer of some personal information; sharing usually in response to patient's disclosure
Feeling and Emotions - level 2 involves mutual sharing without fear of judgment; patient should be allowed to share if so initiates
Peak Communications - level 1 minority of interactions take place here; deepest level of communications with high degree of intimacy
Preferred Representational System (PRS) refers to the system used most by the individual; can involve the visual, auditory, and/or kinesthetic systems
Created by: 604131850



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