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Pharm Ch 3, 4, 6, 8

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
Active transport The active (energy requiring) movement of a sub between different tissues via biomolecular pumping mechanisms contained within cell membranes
Diffusion The passive mvmt of a sub between diff tisues from area of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
Elderly Pertaining to a person who is 65 years of age of older.
Neonate Pertaining to a person younger than 1 month of age; newborn infant
Nomogram A graphic tool for estimating drug dosages using various body measurements
Pediatric Pertaining to a person who is 12 years old or younger
Polypharmacy The use of many different drugs concurrently in treating a pt, who often has several health problems.
Adverse drug event Any undesireable occurrence rel to administration of or failure to administer a prescribe med.
Adverse drug reaction Unexpected, unintended, undesired or excessive responses to medications given at therapeutic dosages; one type of adverse drug event.
Allergic reaction An immunologice hypersensitivity reaction resulting from an unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular med; a trype of adverse drug event and a subtype of adverse drug reactions.
Idiosyncratic reaction Any abnormal or unexpected response to a medication, other than an allergic reaction, that is peculiar to an individual patient.
Medical Error A broad term commonly used to refer to any error in any phase of clinical pt care that causes or has the potential to cause pt harm.
Medication reconciliation A procedure implemented by health care providers to maintain an accurate and up-to-date list of meds for all pts between all phases of health care delivery.
Alternative medicine Herbal medicine, chiropractic, acupuncture, reflexology, and any other therapies traditionally not emphasized in Western med schools but popular with many patients.
Complementary medicine Alternative medicine when used simultaneously with, rather than instead of , standard Western medicine.
Conventional Medicine The practice of medicine as taught in Western medical schools.
Dietary Supplement A prod taken by mouth that contains an ingredient intended to supplement the diet, incl vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, organ tissues, glandular preparations metabolites, extracts and concentrate
Herbal Medicine The practice of using herbs to heal.
Herbs Plant components incl bark, roots, leaves, seeds, flowers, and fruit trees, shrubs, woody vines and extracts valued for savory or medicinal qualities.
Iatrogenic effects Unintentional adverse effects that are caused by the actions of a prescriber or other health care prof or by specific treatment.
Legend Drugs Meds that are not legally available w/out a prescription from a prescriber.
OTC Drugs Meds that are legally available without a script.
Phytochemicals The pharmacologically active ingredients in herbal remedies.
Bias Any systematic error in a measurement process. One common effort to avoid bias in research studies involves the use of blinded study designs.
Black box warning A type of warning that appears in a drug's prescribing information, req'd by the USFDA alterting prescribers of serious adverse events that have occurred with the given drug.
Blinded Investigational Study A research design in which subjects are purposely unaware of whether the sub they are admin is the actual drug or placebo. Serves to eliminate bias on the part of the subjects.
Controlled Substances Any drugs listed on one of the "schedules" of the Controlled Substance Act.
Double-Blind investigational drug study A research design in which both the investigator(s) & subj's are purposely unaware of whether the sub admin is real or a placebo. Method eliminates bias on both parts.
Drug polymorphism Variation in response to a drug bc of a patient's age, gender, size, and/or body composition.
Expedited drug approval Acceleration of the usual investigational new drug approval process by the USFDA & pharmaceutical companies, usu for drugs used to treat life-threatening illnesses.
Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPPA) An act that protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change jobs. It also protects pt info. If confidentiality of a pt is breached, severe fines may be imposed.
Informed Consent Written permission obtained from a pt consenting to the performance of a specific procedure (e.g. rec an investigational drug), after the pt has been given info regarding the procedure deemed necessary for the pt to make an informed decision.
Investigational New Drug (IND) A drug not approved by the FDA but available for use in experiments to determine safety & efficacy; the actual name of the category of application the drug mfg subs to the FDA to get approval for human studies.
Investigational New Drug Application Type of application that a drug mfg submits to the FDA following successful completion of reqd human research studies.
Legend Drugs Another name for prescription drugs.
Narcotic Legal term est under the Harrison Antinarcotic Act of 1914. Orig applied to drugs that prod insensibility, or stupor, esp the opiods (e.g. morphine, heroin). Term is now used in clinical settings to refer to any med admin controlled sub & street drugs.
Orphan Drugs A special category of drugs that have been identified to help pts with rare diseases.
Over-the-counter drugs Drugs available to consumers without a prescription. AKA nonprescription drugs
Placebo An inactive (inert) sub (e.g. saline, distilled water, starch, sugar), that is not a drug but is formulated to resemble a drug for research purposes.
Created by: JaeLaw23