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Ch 1, 2, 3 - RC

Intro to Resp. Care Test 1

sinuses air-filled cavities in the bones of the skull which communicate with the nasal cavity (make head "lighter")
Palatine Tonsils back of the oral pharynx between the palatopharygeal arch and the palatoglossal arch (visible when looking in the mouth)
Lingual Tonsils back of the tongue (lumpy bumps)
Pharyngeal Tonsils aka Adenoids, back of the nasopharynx; if inflamed or swollen, they may block passage of air between the nose and throat
Upper-Airway 1) Nose - filter, warm and humidify 2) Oral Cavity 3) Pharynx- a)nasopharynx b)oropharynx c)laryngopharynx 4) Layrnx
Epiglottis prevents aspiration of foods or liquids by covering the larynx opening while swallowing
Glottis narrowest passageway in an adult (Trachea)
Cricoid Cartilage the only cartialigious ring that goes all the way around the trachea; narrowest passageway on an infant
Circothyroid Ligament site where the trachea is punctured if you can't breathe through your mouth
Alveolar Sacs where most gas exchange occurs (part of the Respiratory Zone) O2 goes in blood; CO2 goes out of blood
Pores of Kohn where over ventilated go to under ventilated via small pore (PoK)
Canals of Lambert opening that allows going back and forth
Pendulum Effect going from one lung to another
Pulmonary Artery only 1 - pumps blood to lungs (low in O2) (all other arteries are high in O2)
Pulmonary Vein 4 of them - come from lungs to heart with oxygenated blood (all other veins are low in O2)
Lymphatic System Primary function is to remove excess fluid and protein molecules that leak out of the pulmonary capillaries (break "junk" down)
Pneumothorax a collection of air or gas in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse (air goes in but can't get out; pushes to the infected side)
Phrenic Nerve innervates the diaphragm
Vagus Nerve innervates throat, rectum, back of the throat (openings) (more sensitive on babies)
Muscles of Ventilation (Inspiration) Using Muscles: Active -scalene (neck) -sternocleidomastoid (sides of neck) -pectoralis major (upper chest) -trapezius (upper back/back of neck) -external intercoastal (between ribs)
Muscles of Ventilation (Expiration) Not using Muscles: Passive -Rectus -External Abdominius -Internal Abdominius -Transverse (Internal Intercoastal) All in the Abdomen
Laplace's Law The distending pressure of a liquid sphere is: 1)directly proportional to the surface tension of the liquid 2)inversely proportional to the radius of the sphere
Pulmonary Surfactant a phopholipd substance important in controlling the surface tension of the air liquid emulsion lining the alveoli
Poiseuille's Law the speed of the flow of a fluid through a tube is directly proportional to the square of the diameter of the tube, the pressure upon the fluid and indirectly to the viscosity of the fluid and the length of the tube
Diffusion the movement of gas molecules from an area of relatively high concentration of gas to one of low concentration
C dyn Dynamic Compliance = Vt/MIP-EEP
C static Static Compliance = Vt/SPR-EEP Normal = males-40-50; females- 35-45
Raw Raw = MIP-SPR/Flow *must convert cm/min to L/sec by diving by 60
Lung Compliance "Stiffness" of the lungs or "ease of filling"; tells how much pressure will develop in the lungs for a given volume of air (pushed in)
Compliance is GOOD!! The BIGGER the BETTER
Resistance is BAD!! THE smaller THE BETTER
Alveolar Dead Space some alveoli are ventilated but not perfused with pulmonary blood (unpredictable)
Anatomic Dead Space volume of gas in conducting airways normal - 1 ml/lb or 2.2 ml/kg
Physiologic Dead Space the sum of the alveolar and anatomic dead space
Airway Resistance pressure difference between the mouth and the alveioli divided by the inspiratory flow rate *normal = 1-2 cm H2O/L/Sec (Resistance against air flow)
Apnea complete absence of breathing
Eupnea normal breathing
Biot's Breathing short rapid, deep breaths followed but 10-30 secs of apnea
Hypernea increased depth (volume) of breathing
Hyperventilation pulmonary ventilation rate greater than metabollically necessary *need blood gas test (wrist); decrease in CO2 (not normal)
Tachypnea rapid rate of breathing
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing 10-30 secs of apnea followed by gradual increase in volume, then decrease until more apnea
Kussmaul Breathing deep and very rapid breathing (Not too small!)
Orhopnea when it is more comfortable for the patient to breathe in an upright position
Dyspnea shortness of breathe where the person is aware
pH (potential hydrogen) 7.35(acid) - 7.45 (alk)
PaCO2 partial pressure of arterial CO2 normal = 38-42 or 35-45 mmHg
HCO3 kidneys; normal = 22-26 mEq/L
PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen normal = 80-100 mmHg
Vt tidal volume = weight/2.2 x (7/9) then divide by 1000 normal = 7-9 ml/kg
Vtalv Alveolar Tidal Volume = Vt - DS (weight) volume giving benefit by getting rid of CO2
Dead Space wasted ventilation (usually weight)
MV Minute Volume = RR x Vt
MValv Alveolar Minute Volume = RR x Vtalv
AC Membrane under Alveolar sacs - thickening and widening edema is swelling between it and the alveolis
Boyle's Law if the Temp is constant, pressure will vary inversely to volume (increase in volume means decrease in pressure)
Charles' Law if Pressure is constant, volume and temp vary directly (increase in volume then increase in temp)
Gay-Lussac's Law if volume is constant, pressure and temp vary directly (increase in pressure then increase in temp)
Ideal Gas Law incorporates pressure, volume and temperature in a mathematical equation
Dalton's Law in a mixture of different gases, the total pressure is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of all the gases
Fick's Law rate of gas transfer across a sheet of tissue is directly proportional to the surface area of the tissue to the diffusion constants (loss of tissue = loss of surface area)
Alveolar Air Equation Oxygen in the lungs PAO2 = [(Pb-PH2O)x FIO2] - PaCO2/.8
Pb 760 mmHg (if not given)
PH2O 47
PAO2 oxygen in lungs (Alveolar)
FIO2 .21 (if not given)
AaDO2 Difference of Oxygens: normal = 20 A - a (Alveolar - arterial)
Henry's Law amount of gas that dissolves in a liquid at a given temp is proportional to the partial pressure of gas CO2 = .592 O2 = .244 CO2 is 24x more soluble than oxygen
Graham's Law the rate of diffusion of a gas through a liquid is: 1)directly proportional to the solubility coefficient of the gas and 2)inversely proportional to the gram molecular weight (oxygen is lighter than 2 gases, moves faster than CO2)
Absolute Humidity actual amount of water vapor in gas (mg/L)
Relative Humidity actual amount of water vapor in a gas compared with the amount necessary to cause the gas to be fully saturate (%)
Body Humidity absolute humidity of inspired gas saturated at body temperature
Humidity Deficit difference between water vapor content of a gas at BTPS (Body Temperature Pressure Saturated) (mg/L)
Driving Pressure the difference between 2 points in a tube or vessel (P1>P2)
Transairway Pressure (Pta) the pressure difference between the mouth pressure (Pm)and the alveolar pressure (PAlv) Pta = Pm - PAlv
Transthoracic Pressure (Ptt) the pressure difference between the alveolar (PAlv) and the body surface pressure (Pbs) Ptt = PAlv - Pbs
Transpulmonary Pressure (Ptp) the pressure difference between the alveolar (PAlv) and the pleural pressure (Ppl)
Created by: nmf05