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Define Kinesiology. The study of movement.
Define Biomechanics The application of mechanical principles to the human and animal bodies in movement and at rest.
Define Kinematics. Description of bodies in motion, includes direction, magnitude and type.
Define Osteokinematics. Description of the motion of bones, relative to the three cardinal planes.
Define Arthrokinematics. Description of motion between articular joint surfaces.
Describe Concave on convex movement Rolling and gliding in the same direction.
Describe Convex on Concave movement Rolling up, while sliding down.
Define Goniometry. Measurement of joint motion in the appropriate plane about a joint’s axis using a protractor-like device.
Describe an Open Chain. Distal segment is free, and moves in space. eg. lower leg flexing and extending while sitting.
Describe a Closed Chain. Distal segment is fixed. Eg. legs during a squat. or hands during push-ups.
What is a first class lever? See-Saw,” i.e., fulcrum is in the center, effort and resistance are applied at some distance from, and on opposite sides of the fulcrum. eg.head. Very few in the human body.
What is a second class lever? Resistance force is between the muscle force and the fulcrum or axis. As such, the EA is always longer than the RA. eg. calf during calf raises.
what is a Third class lever? Effort force is between the fulcrum or axis and the resistance force. As such, the IM will always be shorter than the EM. eg. bicep curls. Gives speed over power.
What is a Moment Arm? The Moment Arm (MA) is always the shortest distance between the action line of a force and the joint axis.
What is an Internal Moment Arm? Perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the Internal force (ie. location where muscle connects to bone.
What is an External Moment Arm? Perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the external force.
Define Force. Push or pull that can produce, arrest or modify movement.
Define Work. Product of the force times the distance through which it is applied.
Define Torque. The ability of a force to cause a rotation of the lever. It is the rotary equivalent of a force. It has a magnitude and direction.
Describe a Closed Packed Joint Position. When the joint is closely positioned (tight), therefore not allowing accessory movement.
Describe an Open Packed Joint Position. When the joint is loosely positioned, therefore allowing some accessory movement. (loose ligaments).
Define Volitional Motion. It is the response of the nervous system that slowly fire and recruit an increasing amount of motor units in order to produce a higher force to pick up an anticipated heavy load.
Define Reflex Motion. The rapid response given as soon as a stretch is detected. Goes directly to the Spinal Cord and back to the effector. Therefore the response received is much quicker.
What is Newton's First Law of Motion? Objects in motion stay in motion, until a force acts upon it.
What is Newton's Second Law of Motion? Force equals Mass times Acceleration.
What is Newton's Third Law of Motion? For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction.
What is a Synarthrosis Joint? Joint connected by dense irregular CT. Almost no motion allowed. Transmits forces. Eg. Sutures of the Skull
What is an Ampiarthrosis Joint? Joint connected by fibrocartilage and/or hyaline cartilage. Allows very little motion. Transmits forces/shock absorption. Eg. Symphosis Pubis
What is a Diarthrosis Joint? Joint connected by synovial membrane with fluid filled joint cavity. Allows extensive motion. Provides axis of rotation for movement. Eg. Shoulder, elbow, fingers, knee, etc.
Define Type 1 Collagen. consists of thick fibers that elongate little under tension. Primary found in ligaments and joint capsules.
Define Type 2 Collagen. Thinner than type one, provides framework to maintain the shape and consistency of structures.
What is Dense Connective Tissue? It is a soft tissues surrounding a joint. Mostly tightly packed Type I collagen. Irregular dense connective tissue make up joint capsules. Regular dense connective tissue make up ligaments and tendons. Primary function is to resist tension.
What is Articular Cartilage? Specialized type of hyaline cartilage. Avascular and aneural. Nourished by milking action during intermittent joint loading. Coefficient of friction with synovial fluid is 5-20 times lower than wet ice sliding on wet ice.
What is Fibrocartilage? Mixture of dense connective tissue and articular cartilage. Makes up menisci, symphysis pubis, intervertebral discs.
What is Wolfe's Law? States that bone models and remodels in response to the mechanical stresses it experiences so as to produce a minimal weight structure that is "adapted" to its applied stress. can be applied to muscle or bone.
What are the two types of bone? 1) Cortical= very dense, forms outer shell 2) Trabecular= "spongy" inner layer of the bone. Arranged as a loose mesh with filling of red marrow.
What type of forces can affect bone? 1) Compression-affecting mainly the trabecular part. eg.vertabrae 2)Tension-Injury to Cortical bone. Eg. long bones. 3)Shear- two forces externally applied,parallel and opposite direction. eg. long bones. 4)Bending-combo of compression & tension.
What is typeI muscle? Slow Oxidative. Motor units with small cell bodies and smaller diameter axons. Usually recruited first due to decreased for production & fatigue=less energy expenditure.
What is TypeIIa muscle? Fast glycolytic. Motor units with large cell bodies and axonal diameter. Involved in mobility and non-postural functions. Capable of increased resistance to fatigue with training.
What is TypeIIx muscle? Fastes glycolytic. Fastest twitch, easily fatigable. Used during explosive exercise.
What is Active Tension? it is developed by the contractile elements of the muscle. Initiated by crossbridge formation and movement of actin and myosin.
What is Passive Tension? Developed in non-contractile structures. Can be created by active or passive tension of a muscle.
What is the length/tension relationship? There is a direct relationship between tension development in a muscle and the length of a muscle.
What is Active Insufficiency? It is the muscles diminished ability to produce or maintain tension actively, due to loss of length tension relationship. Primarily affects two joint muscles when ROM on both joints are attempted simultaneously.
What is Passive Insufficiency? It is the muscles diminished ability to lengthen sufficiently to allow full ROM of one joint secondary to being simultaneously stretched at another.
What is a normal force? It is a force applied perpendicular to the axis of rotation. It produces a torque and motion.
What is a tangential force? It is a force applied parallel to the joint axis. No torque or motion is produced, however, produces a joint distraction or compression.
What is an Isometric Contraction? Produces force while maintaining a constant length.
What is a Concentric COntraction? Produces force while shortening the muscle.
What is an Eccentric Contraction? Produces force while lengthening the muscle. Uses less energy than concentric and the work produced is negative.
Created by: vnatividad