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radiographic imaging

chapter 7,8

x-rays are high energy waves called photons. true or false? true
can x-rays be focused with a lens? no
Name the three things x-rays can do. transmit, absorb, or scatter
how fast do x-rays travel? at the speed of light
true of false: since x-rays are waves, the do not travel in straight lines. false
x-rays are perfectly safe, true or false? false, they have a biologic effect.
What two things are produced by x-ray production? heat and x-rays
Name the two main components of an x-ray tube anode and cathode
what is the source of electrons in the x-ray tube? cathode
what two components make up the cathode? filament and focusing cup
how many filaments are found in the cathode? two. one small and one large
what are contained in the focusing cup during the production of x-rays? electrons
define isotropic. equal all the way around.
how many focal spots are on the target in the anode? two. one large and one small.
define primary radiation. useful beam from the window.
define leakage radiation. any radiation emanating from the tube housing.
define extrafocal radiation. radiation that hits just outside the focal spot and still exits the window.
what is the function of the tube housing? provide support for the x-ray tube. protection from leakage radiation. dissipate heat away from the tube. protection for high voltage cables.
the process of boiling off of electrons is called what? thermionic emission.
what controls filament circuit and measures tube current? mA
what alters x-ray beam wavelength? kVp
compare filament and tube current. filament current = high amps and low voltage. tube current = low amps and high voltage.
What controls quantity? mA
What controls quality? kVp
Increasing atomic number increases/decreases attenuation? increases.
a filter absorbs long or short wave radiation? long-wave radiation.
a filter increases or decreases the amount of overall radiation to the IR? decreases.
what is the purpose of a grid? to decrease secondary and scatter radiation.
a grid increases or decreases the amount of overall radiation to the IR? decreases.
define radiopaque. substance that absorbs more radiation.
define radiolucent. substance that absorbs less radiation.
define exit/remnant radiation. radiation it leaves the patient's body.
what is the difference between scatter and secondary radiation? scatter strikes an OUTER shell electron. secondary interacts with an INNER shell electron.
scatter and secondary radiation have a lower energy level. Is it a longer or a shorter wavelength? longer.
define density. overall blackening of the x-ray image.
define SID source to IR distance.
define OID object to IR distance.
If the OID increases, what happens to exposure? decreases.
How do you get mAs? mA x time = mAs
what factors affect contrast? kVp beam restriction (collimation, coning) fog (lengthens scale) filtration (decreases contrast) patient (more tissue increases secondary and scatter and decreases contrast) grid (increases contrast)
Created by: arichey0004