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Crit Th Ch1

A concise introduction to logic 11th edition -- Ch1 vocab

QuestionAnswer
logic the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments
argument a group of statements, one or more of which are claimed to provide support for on of the others.
statement a sentence that is either true or false
truth values whether a sentence is true or false
premises the statements that set for the reasons or evidence
conclusion the statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply
conclusion indicators indicator words that provide clues in identifying the conclusion
premise indicators indicator words that provide clues in identifying the premise
inference used interchangeably with "argument"
proposition the meaning or information content of a statement
syllogistic logic a kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms, and arguments are evaluated as good bad depending on how the terms are arranged in the argument
modal logic logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief, and doubt.
Aristotle Greek philosopher who devised a systematic criteria for analyzing and evaluating arguments. Also, syllogistic logic and modal logic.
Chrysippus Greek philosopher who developed a logic in which the fundamental elements were whole propositions.
Peter Abelard distinguished arguments that are valid because of their form from those that are valid because of their content, but he held only formal validity is the "perfect" or conclusive variety.
Peter of Spain Wrote Summulae Logicales
Leibniz Developed a symbolic language ("calculus") that could settle all disputes from theology to philosophy.
Charles Sanders Peirce Developed a logic of relations, invented symbolic quantifiers, and suggested the truth-table method.
Factual claim A statement that must claim to present evidence or reasons.
Inferential claim A claim that the alleged evidence supports or implies something.
Explicit inferential claim Asserted by premise or indicator words.
Implicit inferential claim Exists if there is an inferential relationship between the statements in a passage, but the passage contains no indicator words.
warning a form of expression that is intended to put someone on guard against a dangerous or detrimental situation
piece of advice a form of expression that makes a recommendation about some future decision or course of conduct
statement of belief or opinion an expression about what someone happens to believe or think about something
loosely associated statements may be about the same general subject, but they lack a claim that one of them is proved by the others.
report consists of a group of statements that convey information about some topic or event
expository passage a kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.
illustration an expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what something means or how it is done
arguments from example illustrations that can be taken as arguments
explanation an expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon
explanandum the statement that describes the event or phenomenon
explans the statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining
conditional statements "if... then..." statement
antecedent the component immediately following "if..." in a conditional statement
consequent the component immediately following "then..." in a conditional statement
sufficient condition When the occurrence of A is all that is needed for the occurrence of B.
necessary condition Whenever A cannot occur without the occurence of B.
deductive argument an argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
Inductive argument an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true
argument based on mathematics an argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement
argument from definition an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion
categorical syllogism a syllogism in which each statement begins with "all" "no" or "some."
hypothetical syllogism a syllogism having a conditional "if... then..." statement for one or both of its premises
disjunctive syllogism having an "either... or..." statement.
prediction an argument that proceeds from our knowledge of the past to a claim about the future
argument from analogy an argument that depends on the existence of an analogy, or, similarity, between two things or state of affairs
generalization an argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group.
argument from authority an argument that concludes something is true because a presumed expert or witness has said that it is.
argument based on signs an argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes.
casual inference an argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or, conversely, from knowledge of an effect to claim about a cause.
particular statement one that makes a claim about one more particular members of a class
general statement makes a claim about all the members of a class
valid deductive argument an argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
invalid deductive argument a deductive argument in which it IS possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
sound argument a deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises
unsound argument a deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both.
strong inductive argument an inductive argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises
cogent argument an inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises
uncogent argument an inductive argument that is weak, has one more more false premises, fails to meet the total evidence requirement, or any combination of these.
argument form the arrangement and inclusion of premises and conclusion within the argument
counterexample method a substitution instance having true premises and false conclusion
cognitive meaning terminology that conveys information
emotive meaning terminology the expresses or evokes feeling
value claim a claim that something is good, bad, right, wrong, worse, or better
vague expression an expression that allows for borderline cases in which it is impossible to tell if the expression applies or does not apply.
ambiguous expression an expression that can be interpreted as having more than one clearly distinct meaning in a given context
intensional meaning consists of the qualities or attributes that a term connotates
term any word or arrangement of words that may serve as the subject of a statement
extensional meaning consists of the members of a class that the term denotes
connotation the intentional meaning of a word
donatation extensional meaning of a word
conventional connotation the attributes that the term commonly calls forth in the mind of competent speakers of the language
empty extension denotes the empty class that has no members
increasing intention when each term except the first connotes more attributes than the one preceding it
decreasing intention when each term except the first connotes less attributes than the one preceding it
increasing extension when each term in the series except the firstr denotes a class having more members that the class denotes by the term preceding it.
decreasing extension when each term in the series except the first denotes a class having less members that the class denotes by the term preceding it.
definition a group of words that assigns a meaning to some word or group of words
definiendum the word or group of words that is supposed to be defined
definiens the word or group of word that does the defining
stipulative definition assigns a meaning to a word for the first time
lexical definition used to report the meaning that a word has in a language
precising definition used to reduce vagueness of a word
theoretical definition assigns a meaning to a word by suggesting a theory that gives a certain characterization to the entities that the term denotes
persuasive definition engenders a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward what is denotes by the definiendum
extensional definition assigns a meaning to a term indicating the members of the class that the definiendum denotes
demonstrative definitions the most primitive form of definition
enumerative definitions assign a meaning to a term by naming the members of the class the term denotes
definition by subclass assigns a meaning to a term by naming subclasses of the class denoted by the term
intentional definition one that assigns a meaning to a word by indicating the qualities or attributes that the word connotates
synonymous definition in which the definiens is a single word that connotes the same attributes as the definiendum
etymological definition assigns a meaning to a word by disclosing the word's ancestry in both its own language and other languages
operational definition assigns a meaning to a word by specifying cerain experimental procedure that determine whether or not the word applies to a certain thing
definition by genus and difference assigns a meaning to a term by identifying a genus term and one or more difference words that, when combined, convey the meaning of the term being defined
Created by: AlyRuth