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Kinesiology Ch1


Acceleration change in velocity of a body over time, expressed in linear (m/sec2) and angular (degrees/sec2) terms
Accessory movements slight, passive, nonvolitional movements allowed in most joints (aka Joint Play)
Active force push or pull generated by stimulated muscle
Active movement motion caused by stimulated muscle
Agonist muscle muscle or muscle group that is most directly related to the initiation and execution of a particular movement.
Anatomic position reference position used to describe body movement and location. Person is standing fully upright, looking forward, arms at rest by sides, forearms fully supinated, and fingers extended.
Angle-of-insertion angle formed between a tendon of a muscle and the long axis of the bone into which it inserts.
Antagonist muscle muscle or muscle group that has the action opposite to a particular agonist muscle.
Arthrokinematics motions of a roll, slide, and spin that occur between curved articular surfaces of joints.
Axial rotation angular motion of an object in a direction perpendicular to its longitudinal axis; often use to describe a motion in the horizontal plane.
Axis of rotation an imaginary line extending through a joint around which rotation occurs (aka Pivot Point or the Center of Rotation)
Bending effect of a force that deforms a material at right angles to its long axis. A bent tissue is compressed on its concave side and placed under tension on its convex side. A bending moment is a quantitative measure of a bend. See pg 25 for more.
Center of mass point at the exact center of an object's mass (aka Center of Gravity when considering weight of gravity)
Close-packed position unique position of most joints of the body where the articular surfaces are most congruent and the ligaments are maximally taut.
Compliance the inverse of stiffness
Compression a force, applied perpendicularly to the contact surface, that pushes or pulls one object directly against another.
Concentric activation activated muscle that shortens as it produces a pulling force
Creep a progressive strain of a material when exposed to a constant load over time.
Degrees of Freedom # of independent directions of movements allowed at a joint. A joint can have up to 3 degrees of translation and rotation.
Displacement change in the linear or angular position of an object
Distal-on-proximal segment kinematics type of movement in which the distal segment of a joint rotates relative to a fixed proximal segment (aka Open Kinematic Chain)
Distraction a force, applied perpendicularly to the contact surface, that pushes or pulls one object directly away from another.
Eccentric activation activated muscle that is producing a pulling force while being elongated by another more dominant force.
Elasticity property of a material demonstrated by its ability to return to its original length after the removal of a deforming force.
External force push or pull produced by sources located outside the body. i.e., gravity and physical contact applied against the body.
External moment arm perpendicular distance b/w an axis of rotation and the external force (EF = MF).
External Torque product of an external force and its external moment arm (aka External Moment)
Force a push or a pull that produces, arrests, or modifies a motion.
Force-couple 2 or more muscles acting in different linear directions, but producing a torque in the same rotary direction.
Force of gravity potential acceleration of a body toward the center of the earth as a result of gravity.
Friction resistance to movement b/w 2 contacting surfaces
Internal Force (IF) push or pull produced by a structure located within the body. i.e., active muscle.
Internal Moment Arm perpendicular distance b/w the axis of rotation and the internal (muscle) force.
Internal torque product of an internal force and its internal moment arm.
Isometric activation activated muscle that maintains a constant length as it produces a pulling force
Joint reaction force force that exists at a joint, developed in reaction to the net effect of Internal and external forces. Includes contact forces b/w joint surfaces, as well as forced from any periarticular structure.
Kinematics branch of mechanics that describes motion of a body, without regard to the forces or torques that may produce motion.
Kinematic chain series of articulated segmented links, such as the connected pelvis, thigh, leg, and foot of the lower extremity.
Kinetics branch of mechanics that describes the effects of forces and torques on the body.
Leverage relative moment arm length possessed by a particular force.
Line of force direction and orientation of a muscle's force
Line of gravity direction and orientation of the gravitational pull on the body
Load general term that describes the application of a force to a body
Longitudinal axis axis that extends within and parallel to a long bone or body segment
Loose-packed positions positions of most synovial joints of the body in which the articular surfaces are least congruent and the ligaments are slackened.
Mass quantity of matter as an object
Mechanical advantage ratio of the internal moment arm to the external moment arm.
Moment arm perpendicular distance b/w an axis of rotation and the line of force.
Muscle action potential of a m. to produce T w/in a particular plane of motion and rotation direction (aka Joint active when referring specifically to a muscle's potential to rotate a joint). i.e., Flexion, extension, pronation, supination, etc.
Osteokinematics motion of bones relative to the 3 cardinal, or principal, planes.
Passive Force push or pull generated by sources other than stimulated muscle, such as tension in stretched pariarticular connective tissue, physical contact, etc.
Passive movement motion produced by a source other than an activated muscle.
Plasticity property of a material that remains permanently deformed after the removal of a force.
Pressure force divided by a SA. aka Stress
Productive antagonism phenomenon in which relatively low-level tension w/in stretched connective tissues performs a useful function.
Proximal-on-distal segment kinematics aka Closed Kinematic Chain. type of movement where proximal segment of a joint rotates relative to a fixed distal segment.
Roll arthrokinematics term that describes when multiple points on one rotation articular surface contact multiple points on another articular surface.
Rotation angular motion in which a rigid body moves in a circular path around a pivot point or an axis of rotation.
Scalar quantity, such as speed or temp, that is completely specific by its magnitude and has no direction.
Segment any part of a body or limb.
Shear a force produced as 2 compressed objects slide past each other in opposite directions (like the action of 2 blades on a pair of scissors)
Shock absorption the act of dissipating a force
Slide arthrokinematic term describing when a single point on one articular surface contacts multiple points on another articular surface (aka Glide).
Spin Arthrokinematic term describing when a single point on one articular surface rotates on a single point on another articular surface (like a top).
Static Linear Equilibrium state of a body at rest in which the sum of all forces is equal to zero.
Static Rotary Equilibrium State of a body at rest in which the sum of all torques is equal to zero.
Stiffness ratio of stress (force) to strain (elongation) within an elastic material, or N/m (aka Young's modulus or modulus of elasticity)
Strain ratio of a tissue's deformed length to its original length. May also be expressed in units of distance (m)
Synergists two or more muscles that cooperate to execute a particular movement.
Tension application of one or more forces that pulls apart or separtes a material (aka distraction force). Used to denote that internal stress within a tissue as its rests being stretched.
Torque a force multiplied by its moment arm; tends to rotate a body or segment around an axis of rotation.
Torsion application of force that twists a material around its longitudinal axis.
Translation linear motion in which all parts of a rigid body move parallel to and in the same direction as every other point in the body.
Vector quantity, such as velocity or force, that is completely specified by its magnitude and direction.
Viscoelasticity property of a material expressed by a changing stress-strain relationship over time
Weight gravitational force acting on a mass.
Created by: RMK86220



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