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ELLIST#67

KEY TERMS CH 7 - ROUTES & FORMULATIONS

TERMDEFINITION
What is a formulation? a process in which an active drug is combined with other ingredients to form a new product
What are the two routes of administration? enteral or parenteral
What must be taken into consideration with oral administration? certain drugs are destroyed by stomach acids and intestinal enzymes
What are oral formulations? formulations that have other ingredients besides the drug, such as binders, lubricants, fillers, diluents, and disintegrants
What is gastrointestinal action? the process of breaking down a medication that begins in the stomach, and continues in the intestines
What is sublingual administration? when tablets are placed under the tongue
What are intravenous formulations? drugs that are administered directly into the vein
What are IV emulsions and why are they used? fat emulsions and TPN emulsions that are used to provide calories and nutrients to patients who are getting their nutrition by injection
What is an infusion? a gradual IV injection of a fluid
What are some common sites for intravenous administration? in front of elbow, back of hand, or larger veins of the foot
What are the main sites for intramuscular injections? gluteal maximus (buttocks), deltoid (upper arm), and vastus lateralis (thigh)
What are some sites for subcutaneous injections? back of upper arm, front of the thigh, lower portion of abdomen, and upper back
What are intradermal injections? injections where small volumes are injected into the top layer of skin
What are ophthalmic formulations? medications for the eye
What are intranasal formulations? medications for the nose,usually decongestants
What are inhalant formulations? medications that are inhaled into the lungs; most are aerosols
What are dermal formulations? medications that are used for local (topical) effects on or within the skin
What are some forms of vaginal administration? solutions, powders for solutions, ointments, creams, aerosol foams, suppositories, tablets, and IUDs
What is a local effect? when the drug activity is only at the site of administration
What is a systemic effect? when a drug is introduced into the blood and carried to other parts of the body
What is a buffer system? this is created by adding ingredients to a formulation to control the pH of a product
What are bulk powders? solid formulations that are mixed with water or juice
What is the buccal cavity? the pouch between the cheeks and teeth
What are inactive ingredients? ingredients other than the active drug, such as binders, effervescent salts, lubricants, fillers, diluents, and disintegrants
What is an enteric coating? a coating that prevents the tablet from disintegrating until it reaches the intestine
What does it mean to be water soluble? when a substance can dissolve in water
What is a pH? the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance
What is necrosis? cell death
What does ophthalmic mean? related to the eye
What is a hemorrhoid? painful/swollen veins in the anal/rectal area
What is a solvent? a liquid that dissolves another substance
What are the acrimal canalicula? tear ducts
Why would transcorneal transport be used? to transfer a drug into the eye
What is an emulsion? a mixture of two liquids that do not mix with each other (like oil and water)
What is viscosity? the thickness of a liquid
What are the alveoli? the small sacs of tissue in the lungs that transfer oxygen
What is a wheal? a raised blister-like area on the skin
What is the lacrimal gland? the gland that produces tears for the eye
What is an elastomeric pump? an IV device for intermittent or very slow continuous infusions
What is the conjunctiva? the eyelid lining
What is Z-tract injection? a technique used for injecting medications that stain the skin
What is the cellular lining of the nose called? nasal mucosa
What is an atomizer? a device used to convert liquid to a spray
What is a nasal inhaler? a device which contains a drug that is vaporized by inhalation
What are metered dose inhalers? aerosols that use special metering valves to deliver a fixed dose
What is percutaneous absorption? the absorption of drugs through the skin
What are elixers? hydroalcoholic liquids for oral use
What are syrups? concentrated solutions of sugar in water
What is Toxic Shock Syndrome? a rare and potentially fatal disease that results from a severe bacterial infection of the blood
What is a contraceptive? a device or formulation designed to prevent pregnancy
What is an IUD? an intrauterine contraceptive device
What does enteral mean? anything involving the alimentary tract, i.e., from the mouth to the rectum
What does parenteral mean? any sites of administration that are outside the alimentary tract
What are the four enteral routes? oral, buccal (cheek), sublingual (under the tongue), and rectal
What are the parenteral routes? intraocular, intranasal, inhalation, intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, and dermal
What is a local effect? when the drug activity is at the site of administration
What is a systemic effect? when the drug is introduced into the circulatory system
Created by: pharmtechteach