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Management & Policy

MAP 310

Managers AKA administrators, especially in not-for-profit organizations. Individuals who achieve goals through other people. An organizational member who integrates and coordinates the work of others.
Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Planning A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activites.
Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
Leading A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
Controlling Monitoring activites to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
Mintzberg's Managerial Roles (3 Groups) Interpersonal, informational, and decisional.
Interpersonal (3 Roles) Figurehead, leader, and liaison.
Figurehead Role Symbolic head; required to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature
Leader Role Responsible for the motivation and direction of employees
Liaison Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information
Informational (3 Roles) Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. Becoming very important.
Monitor Receives wide variety of information; serves as nerve center of internal and external information of the organization
Disseminator Transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization
Spokesperson Transmits information to outsiders on organization's plans, policies, actions, and results; serves as expert on organization's industry
Decisional (4 Roles) Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
Entrepreneur Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change
Disturbance handler Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances
Resource allocator Makes or approves significant organizational decisions
Negotiator Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations
Robert Katz's Three Essential Management Skills Technical, human, and conceptual
Technical Skills The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise
Human Skills The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups
Conceptual Skills The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
Fred Luthan's Four Managerial Activites Traditional management, communication, human resource management, and networking
Traditional Management Decision making, planning, and controlling
Communication Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork
Human Resource Management Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training
Networking Socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders
Successful Managers Defined in terms of the speed of promotion within the organization. Networking made the largest relative contribution to success and human resource management activites made the least relative contribution.
Effective Managers Defined in terms of the quantity and quality of performance and satisfaction and commitment of their employees. Communication made the largest relative contribution and networking the least.
Organizational Behavior (OB) A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness
Systematic Study Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
Intuition A gut feeling not necessarily supported by research
Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals
Social Psychology An area withing psychology that belnds concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another
Sociology The study of people in relation to their social environment or culture
Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities
Contingency Variables Situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables. Ex: x leads to y, but only under conditions specified in z
Workforce Diversity The concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups
Empowering Employees Putting employees in charge of what they do
Ethical Dilemmas Situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct
Model An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon
OB Model Proposes that there are three levels of analysis in OB, and that, as we move from the individual level to the organization systems level, we add systematically to our understanding of behavior in organizaitons. Individual - Group - Organization Systems
Dependent Variable A response that is affected by an independent variable
Primary Dependent Variables in OB Productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction. More recently, deviant workplace behavior and organizaitonal citizenship behavior.
Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency
Effectiveness Achievement of goals
Efficiency The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it
Popular Measures of Organizational Efficiency Return on investment, profit per dollar of sales, and output per hour of labor
Absenteeism The failure to report to work
Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization
Deviant Workplace Behavior AKA antisocial behavior or workplace incivility. Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization
Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics
Independent Variable The presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable
Individual-Level Independent Variabless Personal and biographical characteristics such as age, gender, and marital status; personality characteristics; an inherent emotional framework; values and attitudes; and basic ability levels. Also, perception, individual decis. making, learning, motivat
Group-Level Independent Variables Patterns of behavior they are expected to exhibit, what the group considers to be acceptable standards of behavior, and the degree to which group members are attracted to each other
Organization Systems Level Independent Variables The design of the formal organization; the organization's internal culture; and the organization's human resource policies and practices
Chapter 1 In-Class Activities Office Space trailer - "how not to manage." Write down 1 time a manager messed up and 1 times a manager did something well.
T or F: The best manager for a group of engineers is the one who is the best engineer in the group. False. The most common method of promotion is taking the "best".
T or F. Spending time building relationships among team members is always helpful to ensure good work. False
T or F. To get employees to do a better job, pay them more money. True or False. It depends, people are motivated by different things.
T or F. In overall vocabulary and intelligence, male and female workers are not noticeably different. True. But gender differences do exist. There are also less females in top management positions.
T or F. Interviews are the best method for hiring the right person for the job. False. But interviews are the most commonly used.
T or F. People work harder when part of a team than when working by themselves. False.
Social Loafing People tend to loaf off in group settings because they feel less responsibility
T or F. As suggested by the dumb blonde idea, physically attractive job candidates tend to be viewed as colder and less intelligent than plainer ones. False. We favor attractive people.
T or F. The most effective work groups are those with very little conflict. False. Managers should stimulate an appropriate level of conflict.
First-line Manager Need the highest level of technical skills; oversee.
First-line Employee Entry-level position
Forces Leading Organizational Change (Four) Technological innovation, globalization, changing demographics and diversity, and employee empowerment.
Ability An individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job
Intellectual Abilites The capacity to do mental activities - thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. Intelligent people tend to be better employees.
Seven Most Frequently Cited Dimensions Making Up Intellectual Abilities Number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory
The Wonderlic Personnel Test The most widely used intelligence test in hiring decisions; takes only 12 minutes; different forms; each has 50 questions. Speed (almost nobody has time to answer every question) and Power (questions get harder as you go along). Ave. Score is low: 21/50
Multiple Intelligence Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural
Physical Ability The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics
Strength Factors (4) Dynamic strength, trunk strength, static strength, and explosive strength.
Flexibility Factors (2) Extent flexibility and dynamic flexibility
Other Factors (3) Body coordination, balance, and stamina
The Ability-Job Fit Directing attention at aonly the employee's abilities or only the ability requirements of the job ignores the fact that employee performance depends on the interaction of the two.
Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics - such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure - that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
Reasons That the Relationship Between Age and Job Performance is Likely to be an Issue of Increasing Importance During the Next Decade (3) (1) The widespread belief that job performance declines with increasing age. The evidence contradicts this belief. (2) The workforce is aging. (3) U.S. legislation outlaws mandatory retirement.
Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
Theories of Learning (3) Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning.
Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Grew out of experiments to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell, conducted by Ivan Pavlov
Unconditional Stimulus Invariable cause that leads to a reaction (the meat)
Unconditioned Response The reaction that took place whenever the unconditioned stimulus occured (increase in salivation)
Conditioned Stimulus The artificial stimulus (the bell)
Conditioned Response Behavior in response to conditioned stimulus (salivation in reaction to the bell alone)
Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment; B.F. Skinner
Behaviorism A theory which argues that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner
Social-Learning Theory The view that people can learn through observation and direct experience
Processes to Determine the Influence That a Model Will Have on an Individual (4) Attentional processes, retention processes, motor reproduction processes, reinforcement processes
Attentional Processes People learn from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. They are mostly influenced by models that are attractive, repeatedly available, important to us, or similar to us in our estimation
Retention Processes A model's influence will depend on how well the individual remembers the model's action after the model is no longer readily available
Motor Reproduction Processes After a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that the individual can perform the modeled activites.
Reinforcement Processes Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Behaviors that are positively reinforced will be given more attention, learned better, and preformed more often.
Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response; guiding their learning in graduated steps
Four Ways to Shape Behavior Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction
Positive Reinforcement Following a response with something pleasant; works best
Negative Reinforcement Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant
Punishment Causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behavior
Extinction Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behavior
Schedules of Reinforcement (2) Continuous reinforcement and intermittent reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcing a desired behavior each time it is demonstrated
Intermittent Reinforcement Reinforcing a desired behavior often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated
Ratio Schedules Depend on how many responses the subject makes
Interval Schedules Depend on how much time has passes since the previous reinforcement
Fixed-Interval Schedules Spacing rewards at uniform time intervals. Ex: paychecks every set time
Variable-Interval Schedule Distributing rewards in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable. Ex: pop quizzes, automatic holiday bonuses
Fixed-Ratio Schedule Initiating rewards after a fixed or constant number of responses
Variable-Ratio Schedule Varying the reward relative to the behavior of the individual. Ex: slot machines
OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting
OB Mod Five-Step Problem-Solving Model (1) identifying critical behaviors; (2) developing baseline data; (3) identifying behavioral consequences; (4) developing and implementing an intervention strategy; (5) evaluating performance improvement
Self-Efficacy How capable we feel; changed from situation to situation
Omission Ignoring behavior in the hope of eventually eliminating it; slower process, but effective
Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events
Cognitive Component of an Attitude The opinion or belief segment of an attitude
Affective Component of an Attitude The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude
Behavioral Component of an Attitude An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes; Leon Festinger
The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by... (3) The importance of the elements creating the dissonance, the degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements, and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance
The most powerful moderators of the attitudes-behavior relationship are... The importance of the attitude, its specifity, its accessibility, whether there exist social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with the attitude
Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred
Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics; AKA employee attitudes
Job Involvement The degree to which a person indentifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth
Psychological Empowerment Employees' belief in the degree to which they impact their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and the perceived autonomy in their work
Organizational Commitment The degree to which an employee indentifies witha particular organization an its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
Three Seperate Dimensions to Organizational Commitment Affective commitment, continuance commitment, normative commitment
Affective Commitment An emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values
Continuance Commitment The perceived value of remaining with an organization compared to leaving it
Normative Commitment An obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons
Perceived Organizational Support (POS) The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being
Employee Engagement An individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work they do
Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires on how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization
The Two Most Widely Used Approaches to Measuring Job Satisfaction A single global rating and a summation score made up of a number of job facets
Exit Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization
Voice Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions
Loyalty Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve
Neglect Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen
The Exit-Voice-Loyalty-Neglect Framework Theoretical framework helpful in understanding the consequences of dissatisfaction. The framework's four responses differ from one another along two dimensions: constructive/destructive and active/passive
Chapter 3 In-Class Activities Bethany Hamilton Video - Shark Attack, Patterns of Dysfunctional Thinking Exercise about incident that angered me
Why Become Positive? (5) Will feel happier and thus enjoy life more; will strengthen your immune and cardiovascular systems and have better physical health; will be a more effective employee; will persist longer toward goals you set; will be better liked and will motivate them
Patterns of Dysfunctional Thinking (8) Black or white thinking, overgeneralization, negative filter, disqualify the positive, mind reading, negative fortune-telling, mislabeling self or others negatively, personalization
Black or White Thinking Extremes; no gray areas
Overgeneralization A single example forms into an entire generalization
Negative filter Only notice negative; lens
Disqualify the Positive Good things are just luck
Mind reading Assuming the negative
Negative fortune-telling Arbitrarily drawing negative conclusion
Mislableing self or other negatively Worst conclusion
Personalization Everything's about me
Other Ways to Combat Negativity (6) Cost-Benefit Analysis of attitudes and beliefs, seek aid of optimism coach, take note of and keep records of successes rather than failures, re-categorize failures as learninig opportunities, cultivate mindfulness or flow
Snyder and Lopez's Top 10 Characteristics of the Best Bosses Clear goals and duties, deliver corrective feedback, genuine and authentic in their interactions, honest and model integrity, find employee talents and build on them, trust their workers, encourage diverse views and take feedback, set high rsnbl standards
Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others
Personality appears to be a result of both... Heredity and environmental factors... also Situation
Heredity Refers to those factors that were determined at conception: physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms
Environment The culture in which we are raised; the norms among our family, friends, and social groups; and other influences that we experience
Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior
The Myers-Briggs Type Indication (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types
Extraverted vs. Introverted Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.
Sensing vs. Intuitive Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the "big picture."
Thinking vs. Feeling Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.
Judging vs. Perceiving Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.
The Five-Factor Model of Personality - The "Big Five" Five basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality. The factors are: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
Extraversion Captures one's comfort level with relationships. A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive.
Agreeableness Refers to an individual's propensity to defer to others. A personality dimension that describes someone who is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
Conscientiousness Measure of reliability. A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. This is the only factor that determines better workers; others depend on the nature of the job.
Emotional stability Taps a person's ability to withstand stress. A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).
Openness to experience Adresses one's range of interests and fascination with novelty. A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity.
3 Main Ways in Which Personality is Measured self-report surveys, observer-ratings surveys, projective measures (Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Apperception Test)
Core Self-Evaluation Degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves, whether they see themselves as capable and effective, and whether they feel they are in control of their environment or powerless over their environment
Self-Esteem Individuals' degree of liking or disliking themselves and the degree to which they think they are worthy or unworthy as a person
Locus of Control The degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate
Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them
Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance
Machiavelliansim Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means
Narcissism The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement
Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors
Type A Personality Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people
Proactive Personality People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs
Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence
Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity
Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values
Power Distance A national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally
Individualism A national culture attribute describing the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of a group
Collectivism A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them
Masculinity A national culture attribute describing the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism.
Femininity A national culture attribute that has little differentation between male and female roles, where women are treated as the equals of men in all respects of the society
Uncertainty Avoidance A national culture attribute describing the extent ot which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them
Hofestede's Framework for Assessing Cultures One of the most widely referenced approaches for analyzing variations among cultures. Found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture: power distance, individ v. collect, masc v. fem, uncertain avd, long-term v. short
Rokeach Value Survey Consists of two sets of values, with each set containing 18 individual value items. Terminal values and instrumental values.
Long-Term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence
Short-Term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligations
Personality-Job Fit Theory Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover
Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) Helps assess whether or not an individual's values match the organization's; Helps individuals sort their characteristics in terms of importance, which indicates what a person values
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) Research program that is an ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and national culture; identifies nine dimensions on which national cultures differ
Chapter 4 In-Class Activity Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: ENFP
Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their itensity
Cognitive Dissidence Doing something wrong even though you know it's not right
Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
Attribution Theory An attempt when individuals observe behavior to determine whether it is internally or externally caused
Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others
Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Selective Perception Selectively interpreting what one sees on the basis of one's interests, background, experience, and attitudes
Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person's chracteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
Projection Attributing one's own characteristics to other people
Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A situation in which one person inaccurately perceives a second person and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception
Profiling A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out - typically on the basis of race or ethnicity - for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigating
Decisions The choices made from among two or more alternatives
Problem A discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state
Rational Making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints
Rational Decision-Making A decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome
Creativity The ability to produce novel and useful ideas
Three-Component Model of Creativity The proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative-thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation
Bounded Rationality Making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity
Anchoring Bias A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which we then fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information; we tend to "satisfice" or make good enough decisions
Conformation Bias The tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments; making a decision that supports our beliefs; only hear what we want to hear - block everything else out
Availability Bias The tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them
Representative Bias Asessing the likelihood of an occurrence by inappropriately considering the current situation as identical to ones in the past
Escalation of Commitment An increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information; sunk cost = something you can't recover
Randomness Error The tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events; creating meaning out of random events; looking for patterns; leads to superstition
Winner's Curse A decision-making dictum that argues that the winning participants in an auction typically pay too much for the winning item
Hindsight Bias The tendency for us to believe falsely that we'd have accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is actually known
Intuitive Decision Making An unconscious process created out of distilled experience
Utilitarianism Decisions made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number
Whistle-Blowers Individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to others
Rational Decision Making Model Assumptions (6) problem clarity, known options, clear preferences, constant preferences, no time or cost constraints, maximum payoff
6 Steps in Rational Decision Making define the problem, identify the decision criteria, allocate weights to the criteria, develop the alternatives, evaluate the alternatives, select the best alternative
Chapter 5 In-Class Activities Car Crash/Surgeon Riddle, "The Ugly Truth" Video
Cognitive Miser Someone who tends not to think thoroughly about everything; can lead to biases or mistakes
Ethical Decision Criteria utilitarianism, rights, or justice
Rights Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals such as whistleblowers
Justice Imposing and enforcing rules impartially
Created by: lauralo8