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PSYC001 Chapter 12

MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

QuestionAnswer
homeostasis body's tendency to maintain the conditions of its internal environment by various forms of self-regulation
drive refers to a state of internal bodily tension, such as hunger or thirst or need for sleep
thermoregulation process by which organisms maintain a constant body temperature
set point general term for the level at which negative feedback tries to maintain stability
glucoreceptors Receptors in the brain (in the area of the hypothalamus) that detect the amount of glucose in the bloodstream
leptin chemical produced by the adipose cells that seems to signal that plenty of fat is stored and that no more fat is needed. This signal may diminish eating
neuropeptide Y (NPY) chemical found widely in the brain and periphery. In the brain, it acts as a neurotransmitter; when administered at sites in and near the hypothalamus, it is a potent elicitor of eating
dual-center theory [Hypothesis] "on" center: area in lateral hypothalamus, initiator of eating "off" center: area in ventromedial hypothalamus, terminator of eating Regions are crucial for eating, but regulation of eating also involves other circuits
Body Mass Index (BMI) commonly-used measure of whether someone is healthy weight or not; BMI is calculated as weight (kg) divided by square of height (m)
morbid obesity level of obesity at which someone's health is genuinely at risk, usually defined as a BMI over 40
comparative method research method in which one makes systematic comparisons among diff. species in order to gain insights into the function of a particular structure of behavior, or the evolutionary origins of that structure or behavior
testosterone principle male sex hormone in mammals
estrus in mammals, period in the cycle when the female is sexually receptive (in heat)
estrogen female sex hormone that dominates the first half of the female cycle through ovulation
progesterone female sex hormone that dominates the latter phrase of female cycle during which the uterine walls thicken to receive the embryo
human sexual response cycle sequence of four stages that characterizes the sexual response in both men and women: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
tangible support social support focused on practical or material needs
emotional support social support focused on emotional needs
mastery orientation learning orientation characterized by a focus on gaining new knowledge or abilities and improving
performance orientation learning orientation characterized by a focus on presenting oneself well and appearing intelligent to others
hierarchy of needs theory that people will strive to meet their higher-order needs (e.g. love, self-esteem, self-actualization) only when their lower, more basic needs have been met
self-actualization according to Abraham Maslow and some other adherents of the humanistic approach to personality, the full realization of one's potential
pain matrix distributed network of brain regions, including the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, though to respond to many types of pain
intrinsically rewarding activity or object that is pursued for its own sake
extrinsically rewarding activity or object that is pursued because of rewards that are not an inherent part of the activity or object
wanting organism's motivation to obtain a reward
liking pleasure that follows receipt of a reward
nucleus accumbens dopamine-rich area in the forebrain that is critical in the physiology of reward
Body Mass Index (BMI) commonly-used measure of whether someone is healthy weight or not; BMI is calculated as weight (kg) divided by square of height (m)
morbid obesity level of obesity at which someone's health is genuinely at risk, usually defined as a BMI over 40
comparative method research method in which one makes systematic comparisons among diff. species in order to gain insights into the function of a particular structure of behavior, or the evolutionary origins of that structure or behavior
testosterone principle male sex hormone in mammals
estrus in mammals, period in the cycle when the female is sexually receptive (in heat)
estrogen female sex hormone that dominates the first half of the female cycle through ovulation
progesterone female sex hormone that dominates the latter phrase of female cycle during which the uterine walls thicken to receive the embryo
human sexual response cycle sequence of four stages that characterizes the sexual response in both men and women: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
tangible support social support focused on practical or material needs
emotional support social support focused on emotional needs
mastery orientation learning orientation characterized by a focus on gaining new knowledge or abilities and improving
performance orientation learning orientation characterized by a focus on presenting oneself well and appearing intelligent to others
hierarchy of needs theory that people will strive to meet their higher-order needs (e.g. love, self-esteem, self-actualization) only when their lower, more basic needs have been met
self-actualization according to Abraham Maslow and some other adherents of the humanistic approach to personality, the full realization of one's potential
pain matrix distributed network of brain regions, including the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, though to respond to many types of pain
intrinsically rewarding activity or object that is pursued for its own sake
extrinsically rewarding activity or object that is pursued because of rewards that are not an inherent part of the activity or object
wanting organism's motivation to obtain a reward
liking pleasure that follows receipt of a reward
nucleus accumbens dopamine-rich area in the forebrain that is critical in the physiology of reward
emotions affective responses (e.g. joy, sadness, pride, anger) which are characterized by loosely linked changes in behavior (how we act), subjective experience (how we feel), and physiology (how our bodies respond).
moods affective responses that are typically longer-lasting than emotions, and less likely to have a specific object
display rules cultural rules that govern the expression of emotion
James-Lange theory of emotion theory that the subjective experience of emotion is the awareness of one's own bodily reactions in the presence of certain arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion theory that a stimulus elicits and emotion by triggering a particular response in the brain (in the thalamus) which then causes both the physiological changes associated with the emotion and the emotional experience itself
Schachter-Singer theory of emotion theory that emotional experience results from the interpretation of bodily responses in the context of situational cues
confederate someone who appears to be a research participant but actually is part of the research team
affective neuroscience field that uses cognitive neuroscience research methods to study emotion and related processes
emotion regulation ability to influence one's emotions
cognitive reappraisal form of emotion regulation in which an individual changes her emotional response to a situation by altering her interpretation of that situation
suppression form of emotion regulation that involves inhibiting emotion-expressive behavior
Created by: jjangstar