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skull and cranium

chapter 12 bontrager

Total number of cranium bones? 8
Total number of facial bones? 14
List the four cranial bones that form the calvaria. Lt. parietal- Rt. parietal- Frontal- Occipital
The four cranial bones that form the floor of cranium. Lt. & rt. temporal- Sphenoid- Ethmoid
A structure found in the middle of the sphenoid bone that surrounds the pituiatary gland? Sella turcica
The posterior aspect of sella turcica is called? Dorsum sellae
which allow for the passage of the optic nerve and is the opening into the orbit? and where it is located? The foramen optic. And is located in the sphenoid bone.
which structure of the sphenoid bone help form part of the nasal cavitie? medial and lateral petrygoid cavity!
which radiographic cranial position best demonstrate the sella turcica? Lateral
which aspect of the frontal bone forms the superior aspect of the orbit? orbital and horizontal portion
know the six asterions and fontanels Fontanels: coronal, squamosal, lambdoidal, sagital Asterions: Bregma ( anterior), Lambda ( Posterior), pterion ( Rt. and Lt. sphenoid), asterion ( Rt. and Lt. mastoid)
Cranial sutures are classified as being? Fibrous joints
Which term descibes the superior rim of the orbit? Superior orbital margin ( SOM)
what is the name of the notch that separates the orbital plates from each other? Ethmoidal notch
Which cranial bones form the the upper lateral walls of the clvarium? Lt. and Rt. parietal
Which cranial bone form the foramen magnum? occipital
A small prominence located on the squamous portion of the occipital bone called ? Inion
what is the name of the oval process found on the occipital bone that help form the occipito-stlantal joint? occipital condyles
List the three aspects of the temporal bones? Squamous, ptroid, mastoid
The mastoid portion is the densest of the three aspect of temporal bone? T/F FALSE: PETROUS PORTION
which external landmark correspond with the petrous ridge? TEA
Which opening in the temporal bone serves as a passageway for nerves of hearing and equilibrium? Internal acoustic meatus
Which structure makes up the cartilagious, external ear? auricle
which small membrane marks the begining of the middle ear? tympanic membrane
what is the collective term for the small bones of the middle ear? auditory aussicles
which structure allow for communication between the nasopharynx and middle ear? auditory tube
what is the major function described in Q: 7 equalize the atmospheric pressure
which structure serves as an opening between the mastoid portion of the temporal bone and the middle ear? aditus
what is the name of the thin plate of bone that separates the mastoid air cells from the brain? tegmen tympani
which one of the auditory ossicles picks up sound vibration from the tympanic membrane malleus
which one of the auditory asscles is considered the smallest? stapes
which one of the auditory ossicle reaembles premolar tooth? incus
which two sensory function occur within the inner ear? hearing, equiliobrium
The cochlea is a closed system relating to the sense of hearing? T/F true
which imaging modalities best demonstrate otosclerosis? ct
List the 3 lassification of the skull? mesocephalic, brachiocephalic, dolichocephalic
Two older terms for the OML are reid's base line and anthropologic base line? T/F false, these are others terms for IOML
there is a ......... degree difference between the orbitomeatal and infraorbitomeatal lines? 7 to 8 degree
there is a ....... degree difference between orbitomeatal and glabellomeatal lines? same
what is the average Kv range for Skull radiography? 70-85 kv
The AP axial (town) results in 10 times more dose to the thyroid than a PA axial ( haas) projection? T/F True
List five more common errors in skull radiography> rotation, tilt, excessive extension, excessive flexion, incorrect C.R angulation.
Adult with osteoporosis mat require a 25% to 30% reduction in mAs during skull prjection? T/F True
which pathologic indication may require an increase in manual exposure? Paget's disease.
Which cranial bone is best demonstrated with AP axial ( town methode)? occipital
when using a 30 degree caudad angle for the AP axial (town method) projection of skull, which positioning line should be perpendicular to I.R? OML
A lack of symmetry of the petrous ridges indicates which of the following problems with an AP axial projection? Rotation
If the patient cannot flex the head adequately for the AP axial (town), the technologist could place the ..... perpendicular to IR and angle the CR....... IOML, 37 degree caudad.
what evidence on AP axial (twn) radiograph indicates whether the correct CR angle and correct head flexion were used? Dorsum sellae, posterior clinoids on foramen magnum.
what CR angle should be used for for PA axial (haas) cranium? 25 degree cephalad.
where is the CR centered for lateral projection of cranium? 2inch above EAM
which positioning error is present if the mandibular rami are not superimposed on a lateral skull? Rotation
where will the petrous ridges be projectedwith a 15 degree Pa axial (caldwell) projection for the cranium? In the lower one third of the orbit.
which specific positioning error if the petrous ridges are projected higher in the orbits for a 15 degree PA axial projection? extensive flexion or insufficient CR angle
where is the CR centered for a lateral projection of sella turcica? 3/4 anterio, 3/4 superior to EAM
which skull positioning line is placed parallel to the IR for ans SMV projection? IOML
which AP axial projection for sella turcica best visualizes the anterior clinoid processes? 30 degree caudal to IOML
which projection best demostrate the foramen rotundum? 25 to 30 degree PA axial
which projection best demonstrate the clivus in profile? lateral
where does the CR exit for a PA axial (haas) of skull? one and half inch superior to the nasion.
what type of CR is used if dorsum sellae and posteior clinoid are of interest? 37 degree caudad
Created by: zidox