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Social Psy/ Law

Social Psy/Law

VocabularyDefinitionTheoryTheory's explanationpracticability
Soc Psychology the scientific study of what ways people think, feel, and behave are influenced the the real or imaginary presence of others Explains social bx (how act in social context) in terms of the power of the social situation (as construed)and not so much of personality (personality psycology) Level of analysis is rooted in indiv. internal psychological process in the context of a social situation, not groups in social categories (families, religion, economic class as sociology), major historical events, or social structures (sex orien, gender) Focus on internal processes of indiv and identifying univeral properies of human nature that makes all susceptible to certain social influence regardless of class or culture
Construal the way the world is intepreted and percieved by an indiv. Shaped by 2 basic Human motives: The need to be accurate (Self- esteem Approach) and the need to feel good about ourselves (The Social Cognition Approach). Additional motives include biological drives (desire for rewards, need to control) People will distort perception of world to preserve their self-esteem as well as try to gain accurate understanding inorder to make effective judgements and decions Interventions for serious social problems must be based on scientically grounded theories about human _______ and bx
Obervational Method Research observed and systmeatically recorded behaviour Describing Social Bx Describing the nature of a phonemenon and generaating hypothesis Archival Analysis, however only used to study public bx and records, not thoughts or behaviors. Difficut ot generalize throughout different groups
Correlational experiment doesn’t manipulate but does look at the relationship between things research predicting social behavior) Not necessary causation, even though they occur together random selected surveys to generalize to the populaton as a whole
Research: Soc Psy an Empirical Science: social influenced can be studied scientifically purposed to answer questions, making predictions, and validating theory in order to help society as a whole. Inspired from Theories and Research as well as personal observation and begins with an hypothesis about effects of social influence Three Methods: Observational, Correlational, and Experimental It needs to be fruitful: Basic (answers basic questions of why people do what do) and Applied (designed to find ways to solve social problems)
Millgram Study- responding to authority (giving shock to another person) (blank) (blank) (blank)
methods for conducting research : observational , correlational, an experimental. (blank) (blank) (blank)
Experimental research that randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures these condiotns ar identical except for the independent variable Answering causal questions by replicating with different populations (external validity) Participant not apart of the independant variable group are treated identically (high internal validity), research aimed to generalize accross situations, groups, and cultures (external validity) Can make causal inferences by increasing psychological realism within experiment (psychological process triggered are similar to ones triggered in everyday life.
hypothesis what should observe or not observe- making a proposition between 2 or more variables (blank) (blank) (blank)
pros/cons with preception (hereitics) shortcuts to manage our way through society (blank) (blank) protection, more awareness,judgemental, sterotypes, inaccurate
correspondance bias Taking one aspect of person and generalizing their entire persona (blank) (blank) (blank)
Hindsight Biases . change answer and able to make sense of what an answer conflicting to initial answer after gaining knowledge that your answer wasn’t correct (blank) (blank) (blank)
(blank) (blank) Fritz Heider's Model (blank) (blank)
(blank) (blank) Harold Kellys (blank) (blank)
attribution reason why we behave (blank) (blank) childhood experience, mental health, social issues
2-step process of attribution analyze a person's bx first by making automatic internal attibution and then thinking about possible situational resons for the bx, then adjust the original internal attribution (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-regulation the ability to control self in particular situation (blank) (blank) associates with the prefrontal lobe because it controls bx and executive functioning (planners)
self-schema the way you veiw and understand yourself taking all of your surrounding in context. (blank) (blank) It helps you know yourself
schemas protypes for things (blank) (blank) usual thought for general makeup of something
(blank) (blank) Men vs women (blank) men more socially oriented and women more relational
intraspection looking inside of self (blank) (blank) (blank)
James lang (blank) (blank) believes the physiological comes before the emotional in determining how we feel (blank)
Cannon-Bard (blank) (blank) believed the physicological and emotional process occured at the same time (blank)
Singer epineferine research Reason-Generated Attitiude we have attributions and causes for things and then we may alter them after we analyze it. It then we use it as a map for the future associate with attitude not perception (two step process)
Intrinsic motivation motivated by internal forces (blank) (blank) (blank)
extrinsic motivation motivated by external forces (blank) (blank) (blank)
Festingers (blank) Social comparison theory When we reach new situation we look to others for understand of what we are to do (blank)
upward social comparison compare self to someone of higher status of some sort (blank) (blank) (blank)
downward social comparison compare self to someone who has a lower status of some sort (blank) (blank) (blank)
Power of Social Influence Research shows that it bx is powerfully influenced by the social environment, not just by indiv personality. the objective conditions does not determine Bx; but how indiv. percieve the situation (construal) (blank) (blank) (blank)
archival Analysis research documents or archivals attemt ot understand a grouop or culture by observing it form the inside without imposing any preconceived notions thery might have (blank) ethnography, photographs in magazines
Guidelines for ethical research imposed by fed, state, and professionals to ensure welfar of research participants Paricipants ar to sign informed concent formsand recieve debriefing about the purpose to the sutrdy and what transpired, especially if there was any deceptoin involved (blank) monitored by Institutional Review Board (IRB),
Cross-Cultural experimental research research in varieous cultues to determin if principles are universal or specific (blank) (blank) (blank)
Experimental research dilemma trade-off between internal and external validity (blank) increasing internal validity may sacrifice external vality. Increasing external validity my cause lose of control of in setting and sacrifice internal validiy Researchers practice initally maximiaing internal so can determine causation and thenexpablishin external vaildiy with replicaions in various settings and with different populations
External validity research can be generalize across situations and populations (blank) (blank) (blank)
Internal validity high levels or internal control between groups without the independent variable. ( they are treated indentically) (blank) (blank) (blank)
On Automatic Pilot: Low-Effort Thinking non-counscious, unintentional, involuntary and effortless (blank) (blank) use of schemas and shortcuts (mental strategies)
Controlled Social Cognition: High-Effort Thinking engaged in controlle thinking which is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful (blank) (blank) counterfactural reasoning (mental undoing the past), thought suppression and ironic processing, and improving human thinking
The Amadou Diallo Case Revisited (blank) Social cognition can go tragically wrong People are like flawed scientist- brilliant tinkers who are attempting to discover the nature of hte social world in a logical manner but don't so perfectly (blank)
Nonverbal Bx communication used to express emotions, convey attitudes, and communicate peronsality traits People can decode its cue, however many are cultural specific, except for facial expressions of emotions. Gender differences are prevalent also eye gaze, touch, personal space, gesture,a nd voice tone, display rules, and emblems. Women encode and decode cues better, however less accurate in detecting deception.
Facial Expressions of Emotions happy, sad, scared, surprised, anger, and disgust Universally encoded and decoded Evoluntionary significance (blank)
Intrinsic motivation bx just because wants to (blank) (blank) (blank)
extrinsic motivation bx due to external rewards and/or pressures (blank) (blank) (blank)
overjustification effect focusing on extrinsic reasons while underestimating intrinsic reasons (blank) (blank) (blank)
(blank) (blank) Two-Factor Theory of Emotions emotional experiences are the result of a 2-step self-perception process in whic people first experienc arousal nad then seek an appropriate explanation for it (blank)
Misattribution of Arousal: making mistaken inferences about causation or arousal (blank) (blank) (blank)
(blank) (blank) Appraisal Theories: emotins result form interpreting and expaining an event, evne in the abense of physiological arousal (blank)
sharing of self-concept learn about own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to others and/or automatically adopting attitudes of those we like and want to interact with (blank) (blank) the desire to maintain our presented image to others is univeral
Attitude a person's enduring evaluation of people, objects, and ideas (blank) (blank) (blank)
Cognitive Based Attitude attitudes based on a person's beliefs about the properties of something (blank) (blank) (blank)
Affectively base Attitude attitudes based on emotions and values and can be created through conditioning (blank) emotions can be used as heuristics if people feel good inthe presence of an object, they may infer they like the object by associating that object with feeling good
Behaviorally based attituedes attitudes based on people's actions toward something (blank) (blank) (blank)
Explicit Attitudes attitutes we consciously endorse and easily report (blank) (blank) (blank)
Implicit Attitudes involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious (blank) (blank) (blank)
Changing Attitudes by Changing Behavior engaging in counterattitudinal advocacy ofr low external justification Cognitive Dissonance Theory Revisited people find internal justification for their behavior and bring attitudes in line with behavior (blank)
Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change attitudes change in response to a persuasive communication, however it is based on the type of attitude people have (appealing to emotions with an emotional attitude) Yale Attitude Change Approach effectiveneess of persuasive communicaiton depends on aspects o the communicator (source of the message); aspects of the message itself (content); and aspects of the audience elaboration likelihood model (persuasion increases by the strength of the arguments in the communication and when they are perswaed mroe by surface characteristics.
Central route ot persuasion paying close attention to strengh of arguments (must have motivation and ability to pay attention) (blank) (blank) (blank)
peripheral route to persuasion persuaded by surface characteristics (attractives of persuader) (low motivation or low ability to pay attention) (blank) (blank) (blank)
Attitude Inoculaitons Small doses of arguments makes it easier for opposers to defend themselves against a persuasive message they hear later (blank) exposing to small doses of arguments against opposing position (blank)
avoiding the influence of persuation uses of Attitude Inoculation, Being Alert to product Placement (forewarning by opposers), REsisting Peer Pressure skills, and Reactance Theory (blank) (blank) (blank)
When Persuasion Attmeps Boomerang (blank) Reactance Theory people experience and unpleasant stat called reactance when their freedo of choice is threatened, attempts to persuade decreases due to the attempts to manage their attitudes. People feel choice is limited (blank)
Advertising targeting affective-based attitudes with emotions; cognitively-based attitudes with facts; and making the product seem personally relevant (blank) (blank) (blank)
confomity A change in ones' behaviour due to the real or imagined influence of others people (blank) (blank) (blank)
social references we conform when we see others as a source for information (blank) (blank) (blank)
Informational social references How should you address a professor, How should you vote in the upcoming referendum that wourl raise your tuition (blank) (blank) (blank)
Sherif (1936) Alon in a dark room, participants estimate how much a light 15ft away moved. The light did not move. The autokinetic effect caused the illusion of motion. The light seem to move, usually about 2-10 inches. did again with others and answers complied (blank) (blank) (blank)
private acceptance conforming out of a ginuine belief that what others are doing or saying is right (blank) (blank) (blank)
Public compliance conforming publically, but diagreeing privately (blank) (blank) (blank)
Informational conformity backfiring When ones personal safety is involved, the need for information, is acute, and the behavior of others is very informative (blank) (blank) Contagion: the rapid spread of emotions or behaviors through a crowd (widespread panic)- Mass Psychogenic Illness
Mass Psychogenic Illness occurance ina group of people of similar physical symptoms with no known physical cause (blank) (blank) 1998, teacher in TN reported a gas smell in class, school evacated, due to reports of headaches, nausea, dizziness
People to informational social influence situation is ambiguous, a crisis, others are experts (blank) (blank) (blank)
Resisting informational influence Aware of influence and possiple of inaccuatecy of information (blank) (blank) (blank)
Normative Social Influence The need to be accepted (adolescence and risky behaviors)- (blank) we comply to social norms- the implicit or explicit rules a group has for the acceptable behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members promotes public compliance without private conformity/acceptance
Asch lIne judgement studies Conformity and Social Approval Participants guess which line is similar to the line on the right- Almost every one got right when alone, but wrong when conformed to the group public compliance (blank)
The importance of Being Accuate People conform less to wrong answers of group, but still conform occassionally (blank) (blank) (blank)
prediction of comformity group size, immediancy, and if have someone to comform with (blank) (blank) (blank)
no allies in the group no one else expresses agreement, the difficulty to stick to position Asch (1955) varied experimetn by ahving 6 or 7 pick wrong line instead of all 7 Subject not alone, conformit dropped to 6% of the trials, as opposed to 32% when alone (blank)
Resisting Normative INfluence Awareness of possibility of influence, find alli how does minority get power to change majority Consistency over time. different members of group must agree (blank)
idiosycradic credits if conform in past, has the opportunity to deviate a bit (blank) (blank) (blank)
Wood et al. Minority get power by private influence. Majority promote public compliance. they have allies, power, (blank) (blank) (blank)
social cognition how peple tingk about hemselves and the social world (blank) (blank) how people select interpret remember and uses social imfoomation to make judgmetns and decisions
Automatic thinking nonconscious, unintentional, and effortless On Automatic Pilot Low effort thinking People as Theorists: schemas, shooters bias, self-fulfilling prophesy, heuristics
shemas metnal structures people use to organize their knowlede about social worlds around themes or subjects tha infuluence the iformation pople notice, think about,and remember Payne and Correll respond quickly with automatic thinking linking AA to violence sterotypes: shooters bias, Diallo tragedy
schemas organize and make sense of the world, fill in gaps of ambiguouosity, relate new experiece to past schemas, memory guides memory reconstuctions we reconstruct our memory based on our schemas of that situation (blank)
accessibilty schemas and concepts are at eh forefront o fpeople's minds an are therefore likely to be used when making judgements (blank) (blank) (blank)
priming process by which recent experiences increase the accessibiliy of a schema, trait or concept higgins at all described man as neg/pos. words available and practic , thoughts must be accessible and applicable
perseverance effect people beliefs about htemselfs and the social world persist even after evidence supporting beliefs is discredited Ross et all People belief lie about how well done on task (blank)
self-fulfilling profesy make schemas come true by having an expectaion about what antoeh perosn is like, which influences how they act toward the perosn, causing that perosn to behave sonsistently with pwoples oringinal expectaions, makin ghte expectaions come true Robert Rosenthal nad Lenore Jcobson 1968 1st/2nd grade bloomers effects of automatic thinking
judgmental heuristics mental shortcuts people use to make judgements quickly and efficiently (blank) (blank) (blank)
availabity heuristics mental rule of thumb whereby peo;le base a judgmtne on the ease with which they cna bring something to mind Dr Marion and assertiveness counts (blank) (blank)
representiveness heuristic mentalshortcut whereby people classify something accordint to how similar it is to a typical case (blank) (blank) stereotypically represents something : is the student from california
base rate information information about the frequency of member os differint categories in the population (blank) (blank) most of the students are in state and some look like californians
Power of uncousions continues to work and orgainze John Bargh et all 2001 and the apartments study (blank) cocktail party effect
Controlled thinking conscious, intentional, voluntary, effortful (blank) (blank) counterfactual thinking, thought suppression
counterfacutal thinking menally changing some aspects of past as way of imagining what might have happened (blank) (blank) more able to, the more emotional the experience
thought suppression attemtps to avoid thinking about something that we prefert o forget two process: monitoring (alerts automatically) and operating (controls the surfacing) unwanted though detected in unconscious, controlled by changing thoughts, unless under cognive overload it is better to embrace than suppress due to possible overspill and decrease immune system functioning
overconfidence barrier too much confidence in accuracy of judgements (blank) (blank) (blank)
improving thinking combacting overconfidence barrier, educating, considering alternatives (blank) (blank) (blank)
Amadou Diallo Rvisited (blank) Tim Wilson et all mental contaminatin brillian thinkers discovering social world, but blind to truths and make their false truths realities peopled as flawed scientist
social perceptin the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people (blank) (blank) (blank)
encode express of emit nonvebal (blank) (blank) (blank)
decode interpret noverbal (blank) (blank) (blank)
facial expressions six universal-happiness, sad, disgust, surprised, angry, fear Darwin's The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals not cultural specific but species specific due to our mirror neurons tested cross-culture by Fapul ekman and walter friesen 1971
inaccuracy of decoding afect blends, saving face, suppression (blank) (blank) (blank)
affect blends physically registering diffent emotions on the face (blank) (blank) (blank)
display rules culturally determined rules about what nonver are appropiate (blank) (blank) (blank)
multichannel nonverbal communication using differnt non verbals to decode situation (blank) 65% of over 1400 can decode situation accurately email and voice are not sufficent communicators
Social Role Theory sex diffenreces in social behavior are due to society's division of labor between sexes and leads to differences on gender role expectaions and sex typed skills Alice Eagly 1987 (blank) women better decoders; men lie detectors, due to womens politeness
Implicit personality Theory schema in wich people use to group various kinds of personality traits together Hoffman et all cultural and language study culture and language effect veiw of world (artistic vs shi gu) (blank)
Fritz Heider 1958 Father of Attribution Theory Attribution Theory describe the way peole explain causes of behaviour (naive or common sense psy) (blank)
Attibution theory dichotomy internal attibution vs external attribution (blank) (blank) (blank)
Harold's Kelly Covariation Model to form an attributon about what caused a person's behavior, we systmatically note the patterns between the presence of absence of possibel causal factors and whether or not the behavior occur we assess consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency information if low in concensus and distinctiveness, but high in consistency- internal: if all three high- external: if consistnacy low-ambiguous (blank)
concensus info the extent to which others behave the same way toward the same stimulus (blank) (blank) (blank)
distinctiveness info extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to differnent stimuli (blank) (blank) (blank)
consistency info extent to which eth behav between one actor an one stimjulus is hte same across time and circumstances (blank) (blank) (blank)
Correspondence Bias/Fundamental attribution error endency to infor that peopl's behaviour corresponds to their disposition Edward Jones and Victor harris 1967 Hitler essay people belief behavior is because of persons internal attributes and not situalional attributes, except for collectivist cultures (blank)
perceptual salience seeming improtance of information that is the focus of person's attention- Shelly Taylor and Susan Fiske- 2 act/ 6 observe conversatin perceptual salience of our visual point of view expalins why correspondanece bias is so widespread correspondaence bias- we know what our eyes see and ears hear
2-step process of attibution automatic attribution then controlled attribution inviting corrections (blank) (blank) (blank)
Actor/Observer Difference the tendentcy to see other peoples behaviour as dispostionally caused but focusing more onthe role of situalional factors when explaining one's own (perceptual salience) (blank) actors have more info about selves (consistency and distinctiveness info). actor has knowledge of situation (salient and noticable looking outward) (blank)
self-serving attributions explain success as internal dispontional factors and failures as external situational factors (blank) (blank) less experience and highly skilled atheletes
Defensive attributions explanations for bx that avoid feelings of vulnerablily and mortality such as a just world (blank) (blank) (blank)
belief in a just world bad things happen to bad, vice versa to keep anxiety of threats to ones safety (blank) (blank) (blank)
self concept/me content of the self tha is our knowledge about who we are (blank) (blank) (blank)
self awareness/ I the act of thinking about ourselves (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-schema mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, tink about,and remember about themselves (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-reference effect tendency for people to remember info better if relate to them selves (blank) (blank) (blank)
independent view of self defining oneself interms of internal thoughts, feelings, nd actions and ot in terms of the thougths, feelings and actions of others (blank) (blank) (blank)
interdependent view of self define self in terms of one's relationships ot others, recognizing ones behav is oftn detemined by the thougths, feelings and actions of others (blank) (blank) (blank)
introspection process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughs feelings nd motives (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-awareness idea tha peole focus their attnetion on themselves evaluating and comparing behav to thier internal standards and values (blank) (blank) (blank)
causal theories theories about the causes of one's feelings and bhaviurs soften we learn such theories from our culture (absence make heart grow fonder) (blank) (blank) (blank)
reason-generated attitude change attitude change resulting fro thinking about he reasons for ones attituedes, people assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize (blank) (blank) (blank)
Self-Perception theory our attitueand feelings ar uncerain or ambiuous, we infer these states by observing our behaviour and the situation in which it occurs (blank) (blank) (blank)
Intrinsic motivation desire to engage in an activity because enjoy or find it interesting (blank) (blank) (blank)
extrinsic motivation engage inan acivity because of external rewards or pressures (blank) (blank) (blank)
overjustification effect tendency for people to view their bheav as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate th eextent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons (blank) (blank) (blank)
Task-contingent rewards reward that are given for perfoming a task regardless of how well you do (blank) (blank) (blank)
performance-contingent rewards reward based on performance (blank) (blank) (blank)
Two factor theory of emotions emotion experience is the result of 2-step self-perception processin which people first experience physiological arousal nd then seek an appropiate explaination for it (blank) (blank) (blank)
missattribution of arousal process whereby people make mistaken inferneces about what is causing them to feel the way they do (blank) (blank) (blank)
appraisal theories of emotions emotions result from people's interpretaions and explainations of event, even inthe absence of physiological arousal (blank) (blank) (blank)
Social Comparison Theory idea that we learn about our own abilites and attitudes by comparing ourselve to others (blank) (blank) (blank)
social tuning process of adopting other attitudes (blank) (blank) (blank)
impression management attempt by people to get others to see as they want to be seen (blank) (blank) (blank)
igratiation process wherby people flatter, praise, and genrally try to make themselves likable to another person of higher status (blank) (blank) (blank)
self handicapping strategy of creating obstacles and excuses for themselve so that if the do poorly,they can avoid blaming themselves (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-enhancement tendency to focus and present positive info about oneself and minimize the neg. (blank) (blank) (blank)
cognitive dissonance drive or feeeling of discomfort, originally defined s being caused by holding two or more inconsistnet cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one's customary, typical positive self conception (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-affirmation theory idea tha peopl will reduce th impactof a dissonance-arousing threat to their self concept by focusion on and affirming their competenc on some dimension unrelated to the threat (blank) (blank) (blank)
impact bias tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of our emotinal reactions to future neg events (blank) (blank) (blank)
postdecision dissonance dissionance aroused after making a decision typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of hte chosed alternative nad devaluation the rejected alternative (blank) (blank) (blank)
lowballing an unsctupulous strategy wherey a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claiming it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently, customers will still agree to buy at inflated price (blank) (blank) (blank)
justification effect tendency for indiv to increase their liking for someting they wave worked hard to attain (blank) (blank) (blank)
external justification explaination for dissonant personal behav that resieds ourside the indiv such as to avoid punishment (blank) (blank) (blank)
internal justification the reduction of dissonance by changin something about oneself (blank) (blank) (blank)
counterattitudinal advacacy stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private beliefs or attitude (blank) (blank) (blank)
insufficient punishment dissonance aroused when indiv lack sufficient eternal justificatin for having resisted a desired activity of object, usually resluling in indiv devaluaing the forbiddin activity or object (blank) (blank) (blank)
self-persuasion long-lasting form of attitude change that results form attempts at self-justificaitn (blank) (blank) (blank)
attitudes evaluations of people, objects, and ideas affectively, cognitively, and behaviorly (blank) (blank) (blank)
Cognitive based attitude attitude based primarily on peopl's beliefs about eh proberties of an attitude objects (blank) (blank) (blank)
affectively based attitude based more on pepls feelings and values than on beliefs about the nature of object (blank) (blank) (blank)
classical/operant conditioning phenomenom whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotioal response is repeatedly parired wiht a neutral stimulus that does not until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus (blank) (blank) (blank)
classical conditiioning (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
operant conditioning (blank) (blank) (blank) (blank)
behaviorally based attitude an attitude basedon opservational of how on behaves toward an attitude object (blank) (blank) (blank)
Explicit attitude attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easilly report (blank) (blank) (blank)
Implicit attitudes attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times uncouncious (blank) (blank) (blank)
persuasive communication communication advocating a particular side of an issue (blank) (blank) (blank)
Yale attitude Change approach study of the condition under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages focusing on who said what to whom (the source of the communication, nature of communicaiton, and nature of audience) (blank) (blank) (blank)
Elaboration Likelihood Model eplanation of hte two ways inwhich persuasive communications can cause attitude change centrally and peripherally (blank) (blank) (blank)
Central Route to Persuasion cas wherby people elaborat ona persuasive ocmmunicaions, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments, as occurs whn people have both the ability and motivaition to listen carefully (blank) (blank) (blank)
Peripheral Route to persuasion peple do not elaborat on the arguments in a perwuasive ocmmunicaiton but are instead swayed by peripheral cues (blank) (blank) (blank)
need for cognition personally variable rflecting hte extent to which people engage ina nd enjoy efforful cognitive activities (blank) (blank) (blank)
Fear-Arousing Communication Persuasive messages tha attempt ot change peoples attitudes by arousing their fears (blank) (blank) (blank)
Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion an Explanation of the 2 ways in which persuasive communications can cause attutude change either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shorcuts (heuristics) such as "experts are always right) (blank) (blank) (blank)
Attitude Inoculation making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position (blank) (blank) (blank)
reactive theory the idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behaviour is threatened, an umpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by erforming the threatened behavior (blank) (blank) (blank)
attitude Accessibility the strenght of the association between an attitude object and a person's evaluation of that object, meaured by the speed wiht which people can reprot how they feel about the object (blank) (blank) (blank)
Theory of planned Behaviour the ideal hat the best predictos of a perosn's planned, deliberate behaviors, subjectiv norms, and perceived behavioral control (blank) (blank) (blank)
subliminal messages words or pictures tha are not consciously perceived by may neverless influence peoples judgements, attitudes, and behaviors (blank) (blank) (blank)
Stereotype Threat the apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behvior might confirmm a cultural stereotype (blank) (blank) (blank)
conformity a change in one's bx due to hte real or imagined influence of others (blank) (blank) (blank)
Informational Social Influence the influence of ohters that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of informatino to guide our behavior;we confom because we believe thatothrs interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct hat ours and will help us chose right act (blank) (blank) (blank)
Private acceptance conforming to others bx out of genuine belief that what they are doing of saying is right (blank) (blank) (blank)
public compliance conforming to others bx publicly without necessarily believing in what we are doing or saying (blank) (blank) (blank)
contagion rapid spread of emotions or bx through crowd (blank) (blank) (blank)
Mass psychogenic illness occurrence in a group of people of similar physical symptoms with no known cause (blank) (blank) (blank)
social norms impllicit of explicit rules a group has for hte aceptabel behaviors, values, and beliefs of its members (blank) (blank) (blank)
normative social influence influence of others that lead us to conform inorder to be liked and acceted by them, this type resuts in public compliance wiht the group beliefs and bx but not necessarily private acceptance (blank) (blank) (blank)
Social Impact theory idea that comforming to social influence depends on the strength of the groups improtance, its immediacy, and the number of people (blank) (blank) (blank)
idiosyncrasy credits tolerance a person earns over time bby conforming to roup norms if enough credits are earned, the person can on occasion deviate without retribution from group (blank) (blank) (blank)
minority influence case where minority influence bx or beliefs of the majority (blank) (blank) (blank)
injunctive norms peoples perceptions of what bx are approved or disapproved (blank) (blank) (blank)
descriptive norms people's perceptions of how people actually bx in given situations regardless of whether the bx is aproved or disapproved (blank) (blank) (blank)
Created by: necolefears