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anatomy of the heart

Apex located at the fifth intercostal space at the midclavicular line; this represents the tip of the left ventricle
Base located at the second intercostal space behind the sternum on the posterior aspect of the heart; it lies adjacent to the vertebral bodies of T6 through T9.
Endocardium A thin outer layer of tissue that lines the inside surface of the heart and valves.
Epicardium the outer layer of the cardiac wall that covers the surface to protect against trauma or infection.
Myocardium the thick layer of muscle of the geart that provides the pumping force for the ventricles
Pericardium a double walled connective tissue sac (fibrous layer and serous layer) that surrounds the heart and protects it from trauma or infection.
Right atrium receives venous blood from the superior and inferior vena cava.
Right ventricle recieves venous blood from the right atrium through the tricupid valve. pushes blood into the pulmonary artery and pulmonary circulation.
Left atrium receives arterial blood from the pulmonary veins.
left ventricle receives blood from the left atrium. pushes vlood into the aorta and the systemic circulation.
Tricuspid valve prevents right ventricular blood from going back into the right atrium.
pulmonic valve prevents vlood from returning to the right ventricle.
Mitral valve prevents left ventricular blood from returning to the left atrium.
aortic valve prevents the systemic vlood from returning to the left ventricle.
atrioventricular valves blood from each atria flows to each ventricle through these valves. the valves close upon ventricular contraction to avoid backflow.
Semiulnar valves blood from each vventricle flows out of the heart through these valves. the valves close upon the suvsequent diastole to avoid backflow of the blood into the heart.
Aorta Largest artery which carries the total cardiac output. divisions include the carotids, sublavians, and descending aorta.
Ascending Aorta provides blood to the head, neck, and arms.
Descending aorta provides blood to the lower body and visceral tissues.
superior vena cava the primary vein that drains venous blood from the head, neck, and upper body into the right atrium.
Inferior vena cava the primary vein that drains venous blood from the lower body and viscera into the right atrium.
Pulmonary artery the primary artery that carries blood to the lungs from the right ventricl.
Created by: dmckoy23