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PSYC001 Chapter 14


zygote fertilized egg, formed by the union of sperm and egg
embryonic stage 3rd-8th week of prenatal development
neural tube tubular structure formed early in the embryonic stage from which the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) develops
fetal stage prenatal period, 9th week until birth
teratogens environmental factors that can disrupt healthy neural development (include lead, alcohol, and cigarette smoke)
fetal alcohol syndrome developmental disorder that affects children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy (effects include range of psychological problems and physical abnormalities)
grasp reflex infantile reflex in which an infant closes her hand into a fist when her palm is touched
rooting reflex in an infant, the sucking elicited by stroking applied on or around the lips; reflex aids breast-feeding
sucking reflex an infantile reflex in which an infant sucks on whatever is placed in his mouth
sensorimotor period [PIAGET'S THEORY] period of cognitive development (birth-2 years) in which the child has not yet achieved object permanence
object permanence [PIAGET'S THEORY] conviction that an object exists even when it is out of sight. Piaget believed infants didn't develop this level of understanding until the age of at least eight months
A-not-B effect [PIAGET'S THEORY] tendency of infants to reach for a hidden object where it was previously hidden (place A), rather than where it was hidden most recently while the child watched (place B)
assimilation [PIAGET'S THEORY] developing child's process of interpreting the environment in terms of the schemas he already has
accommodation [PIAGET'S THEORY] developing child's process of changing his schemas based on his interactions with the environment
preoperational period [PIAGET'S THEORY] (age 2 to 7) child can think representationally, but can't yet relate these representations to each other or take a point of view other than her own
concrete operational period [PIAGET'S THEORY] (age 7 to 12) ch9ild is beginning to understand abstract ideas such as number and substance, but only as they apply to real, concrete events
habituation procedure [method of studying infant perception] After some exposure to a stimulus, infant becomes habituated and stops paying attention to it. If infant shows renewed interest when a new stimulus is presented, this reveals that the infant regards the new stimulus as different from the old one
theory of mind set of interrelated concepts we use to make sense of our own thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, as well as those of others
social referencing process of using others' facial expressions as a cue about the situation
attachment strong, enduring, emotional bond between a child and its caregivers that some psychologists consider the basis for relationships later in life
secure base [John Bowlby] relationship in which the child feels safe and protected
imprinting in many species, the learned attachment that is formed at a particularly early period
strange situation experimental procedure for assessing attachment, in which the child is allowed to explore an unfamiliar room with the mother present before the mother leaves for a few minutes, and then returns
internal working model set of beliefs and expectations about how people behave in social relationships, and also guidelines for interpreting others' actions, and habitual responses to make in social settings
zone of proximal development range of accomplishments that are beyond what the child can do on her own, but that she can achieve with help or guidance
sociometric data data that describe how individuals in a group interact
aggressive-rejected social status of children who are not respected or liked by peers and become aggressive as a result
withdrawn-rejected social status of children who are not respected or liked by peers and become anxious as a result
preconventional reasoning [Lawrence Kohlberg) first and second stages of moral reasoning, which are focused on getting rewards and avoiding punishments
conventional reasoning [Lawrence Kohlberg) third and fourth stages of moral reasoning, which are focused on social relationships, conventions, and duties
postconventional reasoning [Lawrence Kohlberg) fifth and sixth stages of moral reasoning, which are focused on ideals and broad moral principles
puberty period of physical and sexual maturation in which the child's body begins to develop into its adult form
primary sexual characteristics bodily structures directly related to reproduction
secondary sexual characteristics bodily structures that change with sexual maturity but are not directly related to reproduction
formal operational period [PIAGET'S THEORY] (age 12+) child can think abstractly and consider hypothetical possibilities
identity versus role confusion [Erik Erikson] major developmental task of adolescence is developing a stable ego identity, or sense of who one is. Failure results in developing a negative identity or in role confusion
Alzheimer's disease degenerative brain disorder characterized by memory loss followed by increasing disorientation and culminating in physical and mental helplessness
intimacy versus isolation [Erik Erikson] (20s to early 40s) major developmental task of early adulthood is developing an intimate relationship. Failure to do so may lead to isolation
generativity versus stagnation (40s to 60s) developmental task of later adulthood is finding meaning in one's work, which produces a sense of generativity. Failure leads to sense of stagnation
integrity versus despair (60s to death) major developmental task of older age is finding meaning in the life that one has led. Success gives rise to a sense of integrity, whereas failure leads to despair
Created by: jjangstar