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Philosophy101G Exam5

Vocabulary words from Does the Center Hold

Philosophy of mind the branch of philosophy that deals with such ontological problems as the relation between minds & brains, minds & computers, & minds & behaviors.
Pluralism the ontological view that reality is composed of a multiplicity of things or different kinds of things and that this multiplicity cannot be reduced to one or two a categories.
Political Philosophy the branch of philosophy that explores questions concerning the justification of political entities and political relationships.
Postmodernism (1)designating an intellectual posture skeptical of epistemology, ontology, and institutions of the modern western tradition.(2)challenging the basic tenets of liberalism, humanism, individualism, and capitalism.
Pragmatism An American philosophy that claims the meaning of an idea can be established by determining what practical diff. would be produced by believing the idea to be true & the truth of an idea can be established by its ability to work
Pragmatic theory of truth this theory asserts that to talk about the truth of a proposition is to talk about its power to "work," that is,its ability to put the individual who considers the proposition into a more satisfactory and effective relationship with the rest of the world.
Primary qualities term from the 17th & 18th century epistemology and ontology designating properties that inhere in material bodies independently of our perception of them( size,shape, location)
Principle of falsifiability a criterion of scientific meaning set forth by Sir Karl Popper to which a theory is scientific only if it is framed in such a way that it would be possible to state what kind of evidence would refute or falsify the theory, if such evidence existed.
proposition is whatever is asserted by a sentence. The sentence "it's raining," "Es Regnet," and "Llueve all assert the same proposition.
Psychoanalysis the name given by Sigmund Freud to his method of psychotherapy, eventually becoming a theory of the mind, of selfhood, and of culture, in which psychological and social phenomena are traced to their origins in the unconscious mind.
Psychological atomism empiricist epistemology held by Locke, Berkeley, & Hume, that all empirical knowledge is built up from simple, discrete mental data, such as the primitive experience of colors, sounds,& taste.
Psychological egoism a theory of motivation according to which the motive behind all acts is self- interest.
qualia term in the philosophy of mind deriving from the Latin word "quality" designating the qualitative features of mental experience; the experience itself of softness, redness, pleasure, pain, and so on.
radical doubt (methodological doubt) the name of the philosophical method employed by Descartes to discover the absolutely certain foundations of all knowledge. Every belief that can be doubted should be doubted until one arrives at a belief that itself is indubitable.
rationalism the epistemological view that true knowledge is derived primarily from reason. Reason is conceived as the working of the mind on material provided by the mind itself.
Representative realism empiricist epistemology, usually associated with John Locke, according to which the data of perception represent the external world without literally duplicating it, very much the way a photo or painting does.
Secondary qualities term from the 17 & 18 century epistemology and ontology designating perceived qualities(colors,taste,odors)that appear to be real properties of material objects but in fact exist only in perception & are caused by the properties that do exist in objects
Semiotics study of the structure of the system of signs and of the signs therein.A "sign" is an arbitrary mark,sound,or image that has become imbued with meaning by virtue of its membership in a system of conventionality.
Sense data is supposedly that which is perceived immediately by any one of the senses prior to interpretation by the mind.
Skepticism denial of the possibility of knowledge. Denies the possibility of any knowledge; however, one can be skeptical about fields of inquiry or specific faculties without denying the possibility of knowledge in general.
Social Philosophy the study of the problems with justice, involving the fair distribution of goods and services to member of society.
Soft Behaviorism the view that there is no need to include "minds" in the scientific study of humans, whether or not the mind exist.
Soft Determinism also called compatibilism. the view that determinism is true but that freedom and responsibility can exist despite the truth of determinism.
Solipsism the view that the only true knowledge one can possess is knowledge of one’s own consciousness. There is no good reason to believe that anything exist other than oneself.
Structuralism from the late French theorist Levi-Strauss, the view that the human mind is universal in that everywhere and in every epoch, it is structured in a way to process its data in terms of general formulas that give meaning to those mental data.
Sublimation central to psychoanalysis that names the process whereby certain antisocial drives are directed away from their primary goal and transformed into the production of socially valuable higher culture art, religion, philosophy, law, and science.
Substance traditionally the term naming what ever is thought to be the most basic independent reality.Aristotle defined it as whatever can exist independently of other things,like a horse or man, but the color of the horse or size of the man cannot.
Sufficient condition P is a_______of Q if the presence of P guarantees the presence of Q. Ex, the presence of mammary glands in an animal is a__________for calling that animal a mammal.
Superego in psychoanalysis, the component of the psyche that counteracts antisocial desires and impulses of the id by attaching conscious and unconscious feelings of guilt to them.
Synthetic proposition if its negation does not lead to a self-contradiction. For example “Jupiter has a square moon” is synthetic because its negation, “Jupiter does not have a square moon” is not self-contradictory.
Tabula Rasa Latin for “blank slate.”Empiricism from John Locke forward assumed that the mind is a tabula rasa at birth and that all knowledge must be inscribed on that blank slate by experiences.
Tautology if it is in some way repetitive or redundant. example, definitions are tautological because their predicates are equivalents of the term being defined.
Teleological argument an attempt to deduce God's existence from the fact that there is purposeful behavior in nature on the part of non-intelligent beings.
Teleology the study of the evidence for the existence of purpose, design, and intentionality in both human and nonhuman domains.A teleological explanation is an explanation in terms of goals, purposes, and intentions.(from geek telos = goals)
Theism belief in the existence of God or gods.
Theoretical entity a term from 20th century empiricism naming entities that exist only as parts of theories, not parts of reality. For example, “the average American housewife.”
Transformational grammar system of grammatical analysis that uses a set of algebraic formulas to express relations between elements in a sentence or between different forms of tenses of a phrase, such as active,passive,future,and present.
Trompe l'ceil French for “trick of the eye” designating a form of painting whose goal is to produce an illusion that appears to be reality so that the viewer does not realize that she is looking at an artwork.
Utilitarianism philosophy of Jeremy Bentham and John Stewart Mill according to which the value of any action or legislation can be derived from the principle of utility,the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people
Created by: newmexpj