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www.pharmteacher.com PARKINSONS

Parkinson's disease is due to a LACK of which CNS neurotransmitter? dopamine
During Parkinson’s treatment, what happens when dopamine levels are too high? dyskinesias & psychiatric disturbances
List side effects of dopaminergic Parkinson's drugs: N/V, constipation, orthostatic hypotension, psychiatric disturbances, dyskinesias
List side effects of anticholinergic Parkinson’s drugs: dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation, & tachycardia
Describes the term "extrapyramidal side effects”: Parkinsonism-like movement disorders: tremor, bradykinesia, gait abnormalities
Which types of medications CAUSE extrapyramidal side effects? dopamine blockers like the antipsychotics
Why is carbidopa added to levodopa in the medication Sinemet? carbidopa helps more levodopa reach the brain
This antiemetic is a dopamine blocker: metoclopramide (Reglan) & phenothiazines like prochlorperazine (Compazine)
Neuronal destruction in this area of the brain is most affected in Parkinson’s disease: substantia nigra
List symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural and gait abnormalities
List the facial expressions/movements that may be limited in a Parkinson’s patient: less blinking, reduced facial expressions, drooling, impaired swallowing, soft and difficult annunciation
How do the Parkinson’s drugs work? they either increase dopamine or dopamine activity or block acetylcholine activity
What is the on-off phenomenon? abrupt transient fluctuations in severity of symptoms specific to levodopa/carbidopa; bradykinesia vs dyskinesias seen after long-term therapy
This drug is FDA approved for restless leg syndrome the dopamine receptor agonists, pramipexole (Mirapex) and ropinirole (Requip)
The anticholinergic Parkinson’s work best to treat ______ while the dopamine active drugs work better to treat _____: anticholinergics work best to treat TREMOR & DROOLING while the dopamine active drugs work better to treat BRADYKINESIA