Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how INSOMNIA for PT

List some medications that cause insomnia: CNS stimulants (such as caffeine, theophyline, nicotine, & decongestants) as well as corticosteroids, SSRIs, and Parkinson’s drugs
State the mechanism of action for the benzodiazepines: GABA agonists
What effect does GABA have on the CNS? GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It slows neuronal activity
How should sleep aids be used? Ideally, sleep aids should be used/prescribed when non-drug therapy (sleep hygiene) has failed. Ideally they are used prn rather than scheduled and used no more than 2-3 times/week.
List the principles of good sleep hygiene: establish routine sleep schedule; avoid naps and especially naps > 30 min; avoid CNS stimulants, alcohol, laxatives, & diuretics near bedtime; increase daytime activity & sunlight; wind down before bedtime; reserve bedroom for sleep only
Which sleep aids are available OTC? doxylamine & diphenhydramine (Unisom, Benadryl, Tylenol PM, Advil PM)
Which sleep aids have anticholinergic side effects? the OTC antihistamine sleep aids (diphenhydramine & doxylamine)
State the mechanism of action of ramelteon (Rozerem): melatonin receptor agonist
This sleep aid is prescription only, but is not a controlled substance: ramelteon (Rozerem)
Compare zolpidem (Ambien), zaleplon (Sonata) & eszopiclone (Lunesta) to the benzodiazepines: similar in chemical structure and MOA but only used as hypnotics. They are not used for status epilepticus, anxiety, or general sedation
These sleep aids have a very short half-life & quick onset of action, & therefore should be taken right before bedtime: zolpidem (Ambien), zaleplon (Sonata) & eszopiclone (Lunesta)
State the common ending for most benzodiazepines: …pam or …lam
List the therapeutic uses of the benzodiazepines: sedatives, treat acute anxiety and insomnia; some treat status epilepticus, alcohol withdrawal, and muscle spasms
Which benzodiazepines have skeletal muscle relaxant properties? diazepam & clonazepam
List the common ADRs of the benzodiazepines: CNS depression (drowsiness, dizziness, sedation), respiratory depression, anterograde amnesia (forgetfulness), sleep-walking, abuse potential, physical dependence
List benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms: opposite of what the drug does (anxiety, insomnia, panic, sweating, tremors, agitation, HTN, muscle twitching, status epilepticus)
What drugs might interact with benzodiazepines? additive effects with other CNS depressants & respiratory depressants
List some CNS depressants that benzodiazepines might interact with: alcohol, opioids, sleep aids, skeletal muscle relaxants, sedating antihistamines, seizure drugs
List some respiratory depressants that benzodiazepines might interact with: alcohol, opioids
Discuss the link between benzodiazepines & falls in older adults: Benzos, especially long-acting benzos, may increase the risk of falls in older adults due to their effects of dizziness, drowsiness, cognitive impairment, ataxia, etc.
ADRs include sleep walking, sleep eating, & other activities while not fully awake: zolpidem, zaleplon, & escopiclone
List key elements of good sleep hygiene: wake/sleep same time each day; get sunlight; exercise; no long naps; avoid heavy meals/alcohol/diuretics/CNS stimulants at bedtime; avoid non-sleep activity in bedroom; bedtime routine



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards