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What are nosocomial infections? Bacterial infections acquired while in the hospital or nursing home. Generally drug resistant and difficult to treat
What auxiliary label would you use for antibiotics? Take until finished.
What is a C&S test? A culture & sensitivity test is a lab test to determine which drug has the best effect on killing or hindering the growth of the bacteria.
What is the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)? The amount of drug needed to inhibit the growth of the bacteria. This is often reported with the C&S results.
What infections are penicillins used for? RTIs, strep throat, syphilis, gonorrhea, tooth/gum infections, ear infections, endocarditis.
What should penicillins NOT be taken with? Fruit juice or cola because the acid in these drinks can deactivate the drug.
What are the side effects of penicillins? Stomach upset, diarrhea. Take with food to prevent stomach upset.
Patients with allergic reactions to penicillins will generally have allergies to what other drug class? Cephalosporins. Both penicillins and cephalosporins kill bacteria by inhibiting the formation of their cell wall.
What precautions are taken for patients who have Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)infections? Access to the patient's hospital room is restricted, anyone who enters must wear protective gear such as a gown, mask and gloves. These precautions are taken to prevent the spread of the bacteria.
What drug is most often used to treat MRSA? vancomycin (Vancocin)
What is the brand name for amoxicillin? Amoxil, Trimox
What is the brand name for the combination drug amoxicillin + clavulanate? Augmentin
What are cephalosporins used to treat? Upper and lower RTIs, skin infections, some UTIs, infection prophylaxis during surgical procedures.
What are the common side effects of cephalosporins? nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness.
What is the brand name for cefazolin? Ancef
What is the generic name for Keflex? cephalexin
What is the generic name for Ceclor? cefaclor
What is the brand name for cefdinir? Omnicef
What is the brand name for cefixime? Suprax
What is the brand name for cefepime? Maxipime
Why not treat a diabetic with Omnicef? Omnicef is high in sugar content.
What auxiliary label should be printed with oral cephalosporins? Shake well before using; Refrigerate
In which form is vancomycin generally administered? IV form because the oral form is poorly absorbed into the blood stream. The oral dosage form is used only for infections within the intestines.
What are the side effects of vancomycin? Nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and ototoxicity (hearing loss). Blood levels must be monitored.
What drug causes red man syndrome? Vancomycin -- which must be administered slowly to avoid this effect (hypotension, flushing, redness in the neck and face, rash).
How do macrolides work? The block the bacteria's ability to produce proteins needed for survival.
What is the most commonly used macrolide? erythromycin (EryC, Ery-Tab, EES, EryPed, Erythrocin, Pediazole)
What are the side effects of macrolide antibiotics? Stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, abdominal pain, diarrhea.
What auxiliary label do macrolide drugs need? Take with food.
What is a common side effect of erythromycin? Liver toxicity, jaundice. Patients with prior liver problems should not take this medication.
What is the brand name of the generic drug azithromycin? Zithromax
What is the generic name of the drug Biaxin? clarithromycin
What is the generic name of the drug Cleocin? clindamycin
What conditions do aminoglycosides treat? Peritonitis, severe infection of the gums, life-threatening infections such as sepsis.
Which drug class works synergistically with penicillins, cephalosporins and vancomycin aminoglycosides
What is synergistic drug therapy? When two or more drugs are used together because they employ different mechanisms of action that work better together than either drug works alone.
What is pulse dosing? The act of giving a drug dose in a single dose per day rather than multiple times a day. Fewer instances of exposure to the drug during the day reduces the toxic effects of the drug on the body.
What are the common side effects of aminoglycosides/ Nephrotoxicity (kidney damage), ototoxicity (tinnitus, hearing loss and balance problems). Blood levels must be monitored.
What is a more serious side effect of aminoglycosides? Muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, numbness, tingling, convulsions. Patients with neuromuscular disorders such as Parkinson's disease should not be treated with aminoglycosides.
What drug should not be mixed in the same bag with penicillins and cephalosporins/ aminoglycosides
To what drug class does gentamicin belong? aminoglycosides
What is the generic name for Tobrex? tobramycin
Name 6 classes of drugs that treat bacterial infections. penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams, vancomycin, aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, sulfonamides, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole
Created by: pharmtechteach



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