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PSYC001 Chapter 7

LEARNING. Vocab, Concepts

QuestionAnswer
habituation decline in response to stimulus once the stimulus has become familiar
dishabituation increase in responsiveness when something novel is presented, following a series of something familiar
Classical Conditioning form of learning, one stimulus is /paired/ with another so that the organism learns a /relationship/ between the stimuli
unconditioned stimulus (US) [CLASSICAL CONDITIONING] stimulus that reliably triggers a particular response (UR) without prior training e.g. food in animal's mouth
unconditioned response (UR) [CLASSICAL CONDITIONING] response elicited by unconditioned stimulus without prior training e.g. salivation due to food
conditioned stimulus (CS) [CLASSICAL CONDITIONING] initially neutral stimulus, that comes to elicit a new response (CR) due to pairings with the US e.g. bell, after conditioning, signals food
conditioned response (CR) [CLASSICAL CONDITIONING] response elicited by initially neutral stimulus CS, after it has been repeatedly paired with an US e.g. salivation due to ringing of bell
second-order conditioning [CLASSICAL] form of learning where: 1) neutral stimulus is first made meaningful through classical conditioning 2) that stimulus (now CS) is paired with new, neutral stimulus, until the 2nd stimulus also elicits conditioned response
extinction weakening of a learned response that is produced if a CS is now repeatedly presented without the US
spontaneous recovery reappearance of an extinguished response after a period in which no further conditioning trials have been presented (CS elicits CR again)
stimulus generalization tendency for stimuli similar to those used during learning to elicit a reaction similar to the learned response
discrimination aspect of learning, organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that have been associated with a US (or reinforcement), and stimuli that have not e.g. Loud horn (US) with red light (CS+) vs. no horn (no US) with orange light (CS-)
inhibitor stimulus signaling that an event is not coming, which elicits a response opposite to the one that the event usually elicits
contiguity CS and US arrive close to each other in time
contingency CS provides info about US's arrival, and is the key to classical conditioning
blocking effect result showing that an animal learns nothing about a stimulus if the stimulus provides no new information
compensatory response a response (CR) that offsets the effects of the upcoming US
instrumental conditioning form of learning, participant receives a reinforcer only after performing the desired response, and therby learns a relationship between the response and the reinforcer
law of effect [INSTRUMENTAL] Thorndike's theory that a response followed by a reward will be strengthened, whereas a response followed by no reward (or by punishment) will be weakened
operant [INSTRUMENTAL] In Skinner's system, an instrumental response that is defined by its effect (the way it operates) on the environment
reinforcer [INSTRUMENTAL] a stimulus delivered after a response that makes the response more likely in the future
shaping [INSTRUMENTAL] process of eliciting a desired response by rewarding behaviors that are increasingly similar to that response
behavioral contrast response pattern, in which an organism evaluates a reward relative to other available rewards or those that have been available recently
partial reinforcement learning condition, in which only some of the organism's responses are reinforced
schedule of reinforcement rules about how often and under what conditions a response will be reinforced
ratio schedule pattern of delivering reinforcements only after a certain number of responses
interval schedule pattern of delivering reinforcements only after a certain amount of time has passed
latent learning learning that occurs without a corresponding change in behavior
Edward C Tolman advocate for the idea that learning involves a change in knowledge rather than a change in behavior (latent learning)
learned helplessness condition of passivity, created by exposure to inescapable aversive events. Condition inhibits/prevents learning in later situations in which escape or avoidance is possible
observational learning process of watching how /others/ behave and learning from their example
vicarious conditioning form of learning, where the learner acquires a conditioned response merely by observing another participant being conditioned
mirror neurons neurons that fire whenever an animal performs an action (stretching out its arm or reaching toward a target), and also whenever the animal /watches/ another performing the same action
taste aversion learning form of learning, an organism learns to avoid a taste after just one pairing of that taste with illness (e.g. distaste of vodka because of overindulgence)
prepared learning form of learning, occurs without extensive training because of an evolved predisposition to the behavior (e.g. humans naturally associate aversive outcomes with snakes)
presynaptic facilitation documented in studies of APYLSIA, process that underlies many kinds of learning, occurs when learning results in an increased release of neurotransmitter into the synapse
long-term potentiation (LTP) long-lasting increase in a neuron's response to specific inputs, caused by repeated stimulation
Created by: jjangstar