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Chem QIV

Quarter IV New Material

a brown waxlike substance composed of fatty acids and calcium soaps, formed in tissues that have been buried in a moist place adipocere
conversion of fat into soap or a waxy substance saponification
macromolecules of the body, building blocks for cellular material and tissues for all living things proteins
building blocks of proteins amino acids
proteins are what state at body temperature (solid, liquid, or gas?) liquid
def: absorbs moisture readily hygroscopic
def: the act of a tissue absorbing moisture from surrounding tissues to maintain its liquid state imbibition
what body macromolecule is naturally hygroscopic? proteins
body macromolecule considered to be the body's natural humectant proteins
def: consisting of both acid and base parts amphoteric
which body macromolecule is considered amphoteric? proteins
the self-digestion that occurs in tissues or cells by enzymes in the cells themselves autolysis
after death, the pH of the body goes from ____ to _____ alkaline to acidic
the process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to retard decomposition, and restore an acceptable physical appearance embalming
four major types of preservatives used in embalming fluids aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, formaldehyde donor compounds
the five common actions of preservatives 1) inactivate the chemical groups of proteins or amino acids, 2) inactivate enzymes, 3) inhibit further decomp, 4) kill microorganisms, 5) destroy/mask odors
the most widely used preservative chemical found in embalming fluids formaldehyde
the main chemical action of formaldehyde in embalming is the _____ of protein coagulation
coagulation of proteins is accomplished by a cross-linking of the _____ bonds between _____ proteins peptide bonds of adjacent proteins
the cross-linking action of the peptide bonds in accomplished by a ______ bridge methylene bridge
formaldehyde is destroyed in strong ______ bases
the neutralization product of formaldehyde and ammonia (two names) urotropin, hexamine
an aqueous solution of formaldehyde formalin
formalin is _____ % formaldehyde by weight and _____ % by volume 37% by weight, 40% by volume
that amount of formaldehyde necessary to overcome any nitrogen residue and cause the body proteins to become coagulated/the total amount of formaldehyde with which protein will combine to be completely preserved formaldehyde demand
three general examples of modifying agents buffers, humectants, inorganic salts
four other names for anticoagulants water conditioners, water softeners, sequestering agents, chelating agents
four other names for surfactants wetting agents, surface tension reducers, penetrating agents, surface active agents
another name for dyes coloring agents
three other names for perfuming agents masking agents, reodorants, deodorants
two other names for vehicles solvents, carriers
germicide used for the disinfection of skin, oral and nasal cavities, and instruments, also widely used in cavity fluids quaternary ammonium compounds
disadvantage to this germicide is that it is easily neutralized by soaps and anionic substances found in arterial fluids quaternary ammonium compounds
three names for a common germicidal QUAT benzalkonium chloride, zephiran, roccal
best germicide of the aldehydes, cold chemical sterilant glutaraldehyde
these agents control the rate of action of the main preservative chemicals of embalming formulations modifying agents
agents that help control tissue moisture, have a coating action humectants
glycol is an example of a humectant
glycerol is an example of a humectant
sorbitol in an example of a humectant
water-soluble lanolin compounds are examples of humectants
cosmetic oils are examples of humectants
agents that serve to control the acid-base balance of fluid and tissues buffers
borax and borates are examples of buffers
disodium phosphate is an example of buffer
sodium bicarbonate is an example of buffer
salts of EDTA are examples of buffers
agents that help control the osmotic qualities of the embalming solution, help to draw fluid from the capillaries into the tissue spaces during embalming inorganic salts
agents used to maintain blood in a liquid state and thereby make it easy to remove from the circulatory system anticoagulants
EDTA is an example of anticoagulant
citrates are examples of anticoagulants
oxalates are examples of anticoagulants
magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate are examples of anticoagulants
sodium chloride is an example of anticoagulant
sodium phosphates are examples of anticoagulants
agents that reduce surface tension of a liquid, increase diffusion of arterial solution into tissues, increase penetration of arterial solution into tissues surfactants
sodium lauryl sulfate is an example of surfactant
soaps are examples of surfactants
salts of thioalcohols are examples of surfactants
agents employed for the purpose of producing an internal cosmetic effect that closely simulates the natural coloring of tissues dyes
yellowish orange dye that stains the tissue eosin
cherry red dye that stains the tissue erythrosine
non-staining dye (inactive dye) that colors fluid rather than tissues ponceau red
yellow dye that stains the tissue icterin
agents which cover up the harsh odors of the preservatives and disinfectants found in embalming fluids and impart a pleasant odor to a solution perfuming agents
benzaldehyde is an example of perfuming agent
oil of wintergreen is an example of perfuming agent
oil of wintergreen is also called methyl salicylate
oil of cloves is an example of perfuming agent
oil of sassafras is an example of perfuming agent
cinnamaldehyde is an example of perfuming agent
fruits are examples of perfuming agents
mints are examples of perfuming agents
floral compounds are examples of perfuming agents
the agent which carries the embalming agent to the tissues and improves distribution and diffusion vehicle
the main vehicle for arterial fluids water
contain a higher concentration of disinfectants and preservatives, cav or arterial? cavity
generally do not contain dyes, reodorants, humectants, or buffers, cav or arterial? cavity
pH of a cavity fluid 4.5 to 5.2
agents which prepare the vascular system for the injection of preservatives and disinfectants preinjection fluids
these contain water-conditioning agents, surfactants, humectants, ad low concentration of preservatives preinjection fluids
agents mixed with arterial fluids so they are injected concurrently coinjection fluid
two main components of restorative fluid humectants and dyes
three fluids used to embalm jaundice cases 1) masking fluids, 2) bleaching agents, 3) nonformaldehyde fluids
fluid with medium concentration of formaldehyde and cosmetic dyes (used for jaundice cases) masking fluids
fluid with medium concentration of formaldehyde and bleaching effect on bilirubin bleaching agents
for advanced decomp, use a ____ index fluid and introduce ____ to increase the solubility of formaldehyde high index fluid, introduce ethanol
never use a preinjection in a ____ case edema
three purposes of autopsy hardening compounds dehydration, preservation, disinfection
paraformaldehyde is an example of autopsy chemical
aluminum chloride is an example of autopsy chemical
alum (aluminum sulfate) is an example of autopsy chemical
perlite and cellulose are examples of autopsy chemicals
plaster of paris is an example of autopsy chemical
four factors influencing the shelf-life of formaldehyde 1) temperature, 2) time, 3) pH, 4) light
increases temperature may convert HCHO into formic acid
decreased temperature may _____ HCHO polymerize
what is the average shelf-life of HCHO fluids 2-5 years
these type of pH solutions promote decomposition of formaldehyde alkaline (basic)
these type of pH solutions promote polymerization of formaldehyde acidic
the final post mortem change decomposition
a chemical reaction in which a substance is broken down or dissociated by water hydrolysis
decomposition of proteins by the action of enzymes and anaerobic bacteria putrefaction
four poisonous amines which are products of putrefaction cadaverine, putrescine, indole, skatole
the gradual decomposition of dead organic matter by enzymes of aerobic bacteria decay
bacterial decomposition of carbohydrates fermentation
decomposition of fats lipolysis
decomposition of sugars saccharolysis
that amount of the poison which will cause death to the organism to which it is administered lethal dose
a lethal dose that kills 50% of the organisms that receive the dose LD50
the minimal amount of poison that will kill all the organisms that receive the dose MLD
the level of HCHO gas present in air averaged over an 8 hour time period TWA
permissible exposure limit for HCHO (acronym and level) over an 8 hour TWA PEL, .75ppm
short term exposure limit HCHO exposure over 15 minutes (acronym and level) STEL, 2ppm
action level for HCHO as a TWA .5ppm
Created by: amyziolkowski