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Philosophy101G Exam3

Vocabulary words from Does the Center Hold

logical possibility if its idea contains no self contradiction(such as the idea of a one million sided figure). Conversely, if its idea does contain a self contradiction(such as the the idea of a four sided circle).
logical positivism(or logical empiricism) a school of philosophy that flourished between the two world wars according to which the only cognitively meaningful utterances are those of science.
logical entailment a relation of logical necessity between two concepts or propositions.If concept X implies concept Y,then X logically entails Y. For example the concept "brother" logically entails the concepts "sibling" and "male"
logical construct a term from the twentieth century empiricism naming an entity that can be inferred from sense data. For example, the belief that a table exist independently from our perception is based on an inference drawn from our perceptions.
logical behaviorism the epistemological and ontological view that all meaningful mentalistic terms can ultimately be traced back to some observable behavior and not back to some purely mental facts.
logic the branch of philosophy that studies the structure of valid interference; a purely formal discipline, interested in the structure of argumentation rather than in its content.
libertarianism the view that freedom exist.
liberalism the political view that advocates a democratic government and asserts that the state has legitimate right and an obligation to set standards of living below which no citizens may be forced to live and enforce law of equal opportunity.
legal positivism the view that justice and legal legitimacy are defined exclusively by the established political powers.
intentionality as used in the philosophy of mind, the referential feature of mental phenomena;their "aboutness." Mental states refer to objects beyond themselves. One thinks about something, looks at something,alludes to something, is afraid of something.
innate idea an idea present at birth, hence, a priori
infinite regress if p is meant to explain x but p is equally in need of explanation p1, which is equally in need of explanation p2,and so on; p has initiated an infinite regress and therefore p is not an explanation of x
indeterminism the view that there are such things as uncaused events and that therefore determinism is false.
mind-brain identity theory the ontological view that mind and brains are not two different things; rather, all references to the mind and mental states are really reference to the brain and brain states.
indefeasibility if no future event can prove it wrong.
idealism the ontological view that, ultimately, every existing thing can be shown to be spiritual or mental(hence, a version of monism)usually associated in Western philosophy with Berkley and Hegel.
hypothetical imperative the name given by Immanuel Kant to the nonmoral use of the word "ought" this use of "ought" can always be used in hypothetical form(eg. you ought to be nice to people if you want them to like you)
hedonism a theory of motivation according to which the motive behind all acts either is pleasure (physiological) or ought to be pleasure (moral).
hard determinism the view that determinism is true and that therefore freedom and responsibility do not exist. Contrast with soft determinism.
hard behaviorism the view that there are no minds and that, therefore, psychology can study only "behaviors"--an ontological view as opposed to the merely methodological view of soft behaviorism.
gestalt psychology the theory to which perception does not occur as the summation of a number of perceptual parts; rather,these perceptual parts themselves are derived from the general perceptual field,which has properties that cannot be derived from any or all of the parts
feminism the sociopolitical theory & practice defending women's dignity & rights against male chauvinism & male-dominated power structures that have denied legal & social equality to women and have demeaned, marginalized, & constricted women throughout history
formalism a theory of art that distinguishes between form & content in art & claims that aesthetic fact is found exclusively in formal features of art rather than, e.g., in autobiographical, emotional, epistemological, historical, religious, or political features.
forms usually associated with the philosophies of Plato or Aristotle. For Plato,everything that exists in the physical world is in some way dependent upon Forms, which exists independently of the world but are the models of all reality.
Frankfurt-type examples imaginary cases named after the philosopher who first conceived them. They are designed to refute the claim that freedom and responsibility presuppose genuine alternatives (“could have done otherwise”)
free will the ability to make choices that are either uncoerced, undermined, or uncaused; or, if caused, are caused exclusively by the agent her-or himself.
freedom exists if there is such a thing as free acts and free agents, that is, if some acts are performed in such a way that the authors of those acts could legitimately be held responsible for them.
functionalism a currently popular theory in the philosophy of mind according to which minds are not "things";rather they are systems capable of interacting with their environment through computational activity.
aesthetic Sometimes used interchangeably with the term Philosophy of art, and sometimes as a broader concept that comprises discussion of both art and of those natural phenomena that provoke appreciation of their beauty or grandeur.
epistemology theory of knowledge. The branch of philosophy that answers questions such as: What is knowledge? What, if any, can we know? What is the difference between opinion and knowledge?
determinism the view that every event occurs necessarily. Every event follows inevitably from the events that preceded it. There is no randomness in reality; rather, all is law governed. Freedom doesn't exist or exist in such a way as to be compatible with necessity.
soft determinism also called compatibilism. The view that determinism is true but that freedom and responsibility can exist despite the truth of determinism.
philosophy of mind the branch of philosophy that deals with such ontological problems as the relation between minds & brains, minds & computers, & minds & behaviors.
materialism the ontological view that all reality can be shown to be material in nature.
eliminative materialism a materialistic theory of mind according to which sentences that seem to refer to non-material conscious states such as “I have a headache” can be eliminated in favor of more accurate sentences referring to material states such as “my C-fibers are firing"
ontology theory of being. the branch of philosophy pursuing such questions as: What is real? What is the difference between appearance and reality? What is the relation between mind and body? Are numbers and concepts real, or are only physical objects real?
soft behaviorism the view that there is no need to include "minds" in the scientific study of humans, whether or not the mind exist.
egoism a theory of motivation according to which the motive behind all acts either is self- interest (psychological) or ought to be self- interest (moral).
psychoanalysis the name given by Sigmund Freud to his method of psychotherapy, eventually becoming a theory of the mind, of selfhood, and of culture, in which psychological and social phenomena are traced to their origins in the unconscious mind.
Superego in psychoanalysis, the component of the psyche that counteracts antisocial desires and impulses of the id by attaching conscious and unconscious feelings of guilt to them.
Ego in psychoanalysis, the name of the rational, most conscious, social aspect of the psyche, as contrasted with the id and superego.
monism the ontological view that only one entity exist, or only one kind of entity exist.
proposition is whatever is asserted by a sentence. The sentence "it's raining," "Es Regnet," and "Llueve all assert the same proposition.
Distributive justice the form of justice that is achieved in a society when the opportunities and material goods of the society are fairly distributed in ways that recognize both the contributions and needs of all the members of this society.
Empiricism the epistemological view that true knowledge is derived primarily from sense experience. For these philosophers, all significant knowledge is a posteriori or a priori.
sense data is supposedly that which is perceived immediately by any one of the senses prior to interpretation by the mind.
necessary condition (necessity) X is a_______of Y if Y cannot exist without X. For example, fire cannot exist without oxygen, so oxygen is a _________.
Created by: newmexpj
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