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Davi Psych11 Ch4

Study Stack for Chapter 4 - Sensation and Perception

What is the difference between sensation and perception? Sensation is when the brain receives the raw sensory info; perception is how the brain selects, organizes and interprets that info.
Sensation Process of receiving, converting and transmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain
Perception process of selecting, organizing and interpreting sensory information
Where does perception take place and what does it involve? It takes place in the brain and involves the sensations which are processed by the brain.
Where does sensation take place? Raw data processed by sensory receptors.
Synesthesia Sensory mixing - seeing color when a sound is heard, for example
transduction converting a stimulus to a receptor into neural impulses, which are then sent to the brain
Tiny receptor cells in the inner ear convert mechanical vibrations (from sound waves) into electrochemical signals. These signals are then carried by neurons to specific areas of the brain for further processing. This is an example of *what*? transduction
Filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending a neural message to the cortex sensory reduction
What sends messages via the thalamus to alert the cortex? the reticular formation
The reticular formation sends messages via ___ to alert ___? thalamus, cortex
Process that converts a particular sensory input into a specific sensation coding
Coding Through a process known as __, sounds and smells are interpreted as distinct sensations
How does the brain differentiate between senations, such as sounds and smells? coding - via this process, the brain interprets these stimuli as distinct sensations.
psychophysics study of the relation between attributes of the physical world and our psychological experience of them
absolute threshold smallest amount of a stimulus needed to detect that the stimulus is present
Your daughter listens to the sounds over earphones and told to indicate the earliest point at which she can hear a tone. She is listening for what? absolute threshold
difference threshold is also known as what? Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
Minimal difference needed to notice a stimulus change; also known as a Just Noticeable Difference Difference Threshold
Noise-canceling headphones work via creating opposing soundwaves that cancel sounds from the environment. This is an example of what? difference threshold
sensory adaptation repeated or constant stimulation decreases the number of sensory messages sent to the brain, which causes decreased sensation
when receptors higher up in the sensory system get "tired" and fire less frequently, after a constant stimulus is presented over a length of time, causing sensation to often fade or disappear sensory adaptation
To survive, we can't afford to waste attention and time on unchanging, normally unimportant stimuli. This is an example of... sensory adaptation
gate-control theory of pain theory that pain sensations are processed and altered by mechanisms within the spinal cord
wavelength difference between the crests or peaks of light or sound waves; the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency
frequency how often a light or sound wave cycles (i.e., the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time)
Vision and hearing are both based upon ___ phenomena wave
the height, number and distance of waves Amplitude, frequency and wavelength
Visible spectrum that small part of the electromagnetic spectrum that's detectable by the human eye
What is the path of light through the structures of the eye? Cornea - iris - pupil - lens - retina
Light first enters the eye through the ___ cornea
protective, transparent tissue that because of its convex curvature, helps focus incoming light rays cornea
iris structure directly behind the cornea, which provides color of the eye
____ in the iris allow the ___ to dilate or constrict in response to light intensity, or emotions muscles, pupil
Behind the iris is the __, which adds to the focusing begun by the cornea; but unlike the cornea, this structure is adjustable. lens
How does the lens adjust? small muscles change its shape to allow us to focus on objects close to the eye or farther away
accommodation (in vision) automatic adjustment of the eye, which occurs when muscles change the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects at different distances.
When you look at a faraway object, your lens accommodates by thinning and flattening to focus. hen your glance shifts to a near object, your lens thickens and curves. This process is called: accommodation
Light sensitive inner surface of the back of the eye, which contains the receptor cells for vision (rods and cones) retina
rods and cones are located where? retina
the retina contains what: rods and cones
rods receptor cells in the retina that detect shades of gray and are responsible for peripheral vision and are most sensitive in dim light.
Cones receptor cells concentrated near the center of the retina, responsible for color vision and fine detail; most sensitive in brightly lit conditions.
These are responsible for color vision and fine detail cones
tiny pit in the center of the retina, filled with cones; it is responsible for __ fovea; sharp vision
the fovea is responsible for what? sharp vision
the fovea is filled with cones, assisting in its responsibility for__ sharp vision
the sense of hearing is called what? audition
cochlea three chambered, snail shaped structure in the inner ear containing the receptors for hearing
What determines the pitch of a sound? The frequency of the sound wave
What determines the loudness of a sound? the amplitude
The ear has ___ major sections three
___ gathers and delivers sound waves to the middle ear outer ear
amplifies and concentrates sounds gathered by the outer ear middle ear
contains receptor cells that ultimately transduce the mechanical energy created by sounds into neural impulses inner ear
pinna external, visible part of the ear that we automatically envision when we think of an ear
the pinna channels sound waves into what? the auditory canal
tubelike structure that focuses sound that is then delivered to the inner ear auditory canal
thin, tautly stretched membrane also known as the eardrum tympanic membrane
tympanic membrane thin, tautly stretched membrane also known as the eardrum
three tiniest bones in the human body, and where they're located malleus, incus and stapes - also known as the ossicles - in the inner ear
What is the path of sound waves through the ear? Enters the outer ear -- are amplified and concentrated in the middle ear -- transduced in the inner near -- carried through the auditory nerve to the brain
snail shaped structure that contains the basilar membrane with receptors for hearing cochlea
hearing receptors are known as... hair cells
what happens as waves travel through cochlear fluid? hair cells bend from side to side
The mechanical energy of a sound wave is ___ into the electrochemical impulses that are carried by the auditory nerve to the brain transduced
The two chemically based senses olfaction and gustation
sense of smell results from stimulation of ___? receptor cells in the nose
the receptor cells in the nose are embedded in what? a mucus-coated membrane called the olfactory epithelium
actually modified neurons with branched dendrites extending out into the epithelium olfactory receptors
most olfactory data is processed here before being sent to other parts of the brain olfactory bulb
pheremones airborne chemicals that affect behavior, including recognition of family members, aggression, territorial marking, and sexual mating
five tastes sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami
Umami separate taste and type of taste receptor that is sensitive to glutamate (the taste of protein)
major taste buds are clustered on our tongues within little bumps called... papillae
receptors for the sense of taste taste buds
Why are children so picky about food? Their taste buds are more abundant - taste buds die and are replaced every seven days
Why do humans and animals have a preference for sweet foods? They are generally nonpoisonous and are good sources of energy
What are the three body senses skin senses, vestibular sense and kinesthesia
three basic skin sensations touch/pressure, temperature and pain
sense of body orientation and position with respect to gravity and three-dimensional space vestibular
sense of balance vestibular sense
riding a bike, walking or sitting up would be impossible without this sense vestibular sense
semicircular canals provide brain with balance information, particularly information about rotation of the head
what causes motion sickness? overload or confusion of the vestibular sense
sensory system for body posture and orientation kinesthesia
these receptors, unlike those for any other sense, are found throughout the body - the muscles, joints and tendons kinesthetic receptors
Function of the skin senses Detect pressure, temperature and pain; they protect the internal organs and provide basic survival information
the weightlessness experienced by space travelers from zero gravity has its greatest effect on the __ vestibular sense
false or misleading perceptions illusion
chemical scents found in natural body odors pheremones
first step in perception selection
filtering out and attending only to important sensory messages selective attention
specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information feature detectors
tendency of the brain to ignore environmental factors that remain constant habituation
how does habituation differ from adaptation? habituation occurs in the brain; adaptation occurs when sensory receptors actually decrease the number of sensory messages they send to the brain.
four things by which we organize sensory data form, constancy, depth and color
most fundamental Gestalt principle of organization tendency to distinguish between figure and ground
Figure-Ground principle of organization ground is always seen as farther away than figure
Proximity principle of organization objects that are physically close together are goruped together
Continuity principle of organization Objects that continue a pattern are grouped together
Closure principle of organization Tendency to see a finished unit from an incomplete stimulus
One of the drawbacks of the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization is this... It's culturally specific; it's valid only for people who have been schooled in geometrical concepts
perceptual constancy tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input
perceptual set readiness to perceive in a particular manner based on expectations
We largely see what we expect to see... this is because of: the perceptual set
Bottom-up processing Information processing that begins "at the bottom" with raw sensory data fed "up" to the brain
information processing that starts "at the top" with the observer's thoughts, expectations and knowledge, and works down top-down processing
our perceptions of people, objects or situations are affected by _____ or context frame of reference
Your visual receptors have begun to receive, translate and transmit the contours of the letters on this exam to your brain. You are therefore engaged in the process of ____ sensation
the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting sensory data into usable mental representations of the world is called __ perception
three people standing next to each other were witnesses to a robbery. When asked for a description of the robber, each person gave a different answer. These different interpretations MOST LIKELY illustrate differences in __ perception
body cells specialized to receive and process distinct sensory information sensory receptors
transduction when you listen to music, the sound waves are converted into neural impulses for your brain to process. This process is called __
Process of filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending a neural message to the cortex sensory reduction
coding the reason you are seeing this test, rather than smelling it, tasting it, or hearing it, is because your visual receptors are being stimulated and the ifnromation is being sent along the optic nerve to the occipital lobe in the brain...
The lightest amount of a stimuli that can be perceived absolute threshold
Rowena is placed in a room and told to press a button each time she hears a sound become louder. In this test, Rowena's __ is being measured difference threshold for sound
When you first put your clothes on this morning you felt them on your skin, but within minutes you no longer noticed them. sensory adaptation
pathway for light through the eye cornea - pupil - lens - retina
pathway for sound through the ear ear drum - malleus - incus - stapes - cochlea
hair cells are sensory receptors found in the: cochlea, semicircular canals, vestibular sacs
The taste that animals are coded to avoid that improves chances or survival by avoiding toxicity bitter
balance or ability to know your body orientation and position with respect to gravity and three dimensional space is provided by this sense vestibular
according to the most fundamental Gestalt principle of organization, our perceptions consist of __ figure and ground
as a flock of Canadian geese flies overhead in its familiar V formation, the geese are seen as __ and the sky as __ figure; ground
also known as negative space and positive space, respectively ground, figure
perceptual principle of organization suggests that you are more likely to believe that a group of people who look alike will act alike similarity
___ is the readiness to perceive in a particular manner, based on expectations perceptual set
Created by: dreia