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Intro Psych TCN

Intro to Psych - College Network - CLEP

Social Psychologist Interactions between people & their perceptions of these processes
Developmental Psychologist Development of human cognitive & social processes throughout their life-span eg(observe children to investigate when first begin to play with others)
Experimental Psychologist Physiological/Biological research to understand interaction between behavior & brain processes eg(rats in maze to test hypothesis on how learning occurs)
Clinical Psychologist Study “abnormal” human processes & their alleviation thru treatment eg(determine ability person understand court proceedings or determine mental state at time of offense)
Counseling Psychologist Study “normal” human interactions & processes to help individuals “grow” eg(work through chronic illness or help shape laws & procedures)
Industrial/Organizational Psychologist Study how organizations influence/influenced by social, cognitive & behavioral capabilities & patterns of the people who function as part of the work environment eg(work w/ management & workers to improve efficiency or reduce conflict)
Educational Psychologist Improving education/training thru learning & memory applied to daily situations
Gestalt Movement Effects of beliefs & ideas on perception
Behaviorist Movement Focus on aspects of human functioning directly observable, measurable & publicly verifiable
Humanist Movement Focus on individual self & must include personal growth, identity & intention
Cognitive Movement Returned to study mental process although more scientifically rigid fashion now
Psychology Scientific study of human behavior & mental processes usually through Psychologist (MS or Ph.D)
Psychiatry Medical study of mental disorders brought on by Freud now viewed as biological & medically treatable
Naturalistic Observations Methods used to unobtrusively study behaviors in natural environment by control/manipulation to determine what actually influences behavior
False Statement In order to be classified as a psychologist, an individual must have obtained at least a PhD in psychology
False Statement All psychologists are trained in the treatment of psychological disorders.
False Statement Psychological studies rarely involve the application of scientific processes
True Statement Psychologists rely on systematic observation and/or control of events to discover recurrent patterns of behavior or mental activity
Responsibility of a psychologist Observing & describing how infant's behavior changes when mothers leave room
Responsibility of a psychologist Seeking to determine emotions kindergartners experience as they begin school for first time
Responsibility of a psychologist Seeking to explain cognitive processes people employ when presented with certain logic problems
Research focuses on way environmental conditions affect people's perception of certain events Gestalt Movement
Study seeking to determine whether people experience stagnation in personal growth after age 80 Humanist Movement
Aspects of human functioning that are directly observable, measurable and publicly verifiable Behavioral Movement
Unobtrusive observation of people in social settings Naturalistic Observation
Clinical psychologists study "abnormal" human processes & their alleviation Counseling psychologists study "normal" human interactions & processes
Examining interrelationship between childhood sexual abuse, different cognitive interpretations of this abuse and development of hisrionic personality disorder later in life Personality Psychology
Cognitive Psychologist Focus on learning & thinking processes
Personality Psychologist Study interrelations of life events, cognitive interpretations, emotions and behavior
Sigmund Freud Psychoanalytic theory Neurology
Descartes Philospher Bodily functions & mental functions separate but interacting
Locke Empiricist
Mill Associationism
Fechner Mathematical equations
Helmholtz Perception of color Role of nervous system in relfex behaviors
Wundt "Father of Psychology" Structuralism
James Philosopher Functionalist
Watson Behaviorism
Binet Behaviorism Mental Measurement
Wertheimer Gestalt
Perls Gestalt to USA
Empiricism Locke All knowledge stems from our senses Relationship between events & mental representations
Associationism Mill Ideas organized in mind based on initial association through experience of the stimulus
Structuralism Wundt Scientific methods study structure of mind Most basic elements of ideas & how combine to form complex notions
Functionalism James Processes help man adapt to environment, survive & prosper Consciousness dynamic & flowing ("stream of consciousness") Mental processes could not be broken into separate elements
Behaviorism Watson & Binet Human function observable, measureable & publicly verifiable Identify ways people learn thru interactions with environment
Gestalt Wertheimer Function of patterns of whole being rather than sum of parts Interactions with environment create structure to encompass experiences
Psychoanalysis Freud Unconscious conflicts & their resolutions to explain human behavior Person't "psychic energy" = id, ego, super-ego
Biopsychosocial Orientation People & their behavior must be considered in context of biological systems, psychological processes and social influences
Mental Measurement Binet Analyzes various aspects of human functioning & measures differences in functioning between individuals
Basic Research Geared to gaining knowledge & clarifying concepts with limited emphasis toward applicability
Applied Research Involves active study and/or resolution of existing problems
Case Study Detailed investigation of single subject/topic from which findings are generalized Often conducted by clinicians
Useful in gathering information especially where unique/unusual opportunities for research arise by clinicians Case studies
Survey Research where questionnaires are completed by large group of peoples.
Misinterpretions of questions or intentional responses in cautious/dishonest manner Problems w/ surveys
Worthwhile research when subjects representative of population findings will be generalized for Surveys
Experiment Research method where causal relationship is established
Manipulation of independent variable to see or get response of dependent variable Experiment
Descriptive Studies Simple description of phenomenon/situation
Documentation on how people are generally Descriptive study
Correlation Studies Show how 2 phenomena/situations correspond to one another but NOT causal
Study showing how much money people have and how happy they are Correlation study
Study where money is given to people or taken away to determine their happiness Experiment
Laboratories & Psychology Used to help control situation so outside influences do not intrude on study
Controlling situation so extraneous variables do not intrude/influence study Laboratory
All knowledge stems from our senses Empiricism
Ideas organized in mind based on initial association through experience Associationism
Study of the structure of the mind Structuralism
Building blocks of ideas and ways ideas combine to form complex notions Structuralism
Processes help adaptation to environment, survival and prosperity Functionalism
Experience is function of patterns of the whole rather than sum of parts Gestalt
Reintegration of three different systems within individual Gestalt
Structure created to encompass various experiences Gestalt
Unconscious conflicts & their resolutions Psychoanalysis
Person's energy derives from instinctive drives Psychoanalysis
Considering biological, psychological and social functions Biopsychocosocial
Epidemiological Research Often uses surveys
Studing various psychological problems humans experience in area of abnormal psychology Epidemiological research
Help to identify geographic, social and economic factors associated with particular problems Epidemiological research
Prevalence Percentage of individuals who have certain disorder during certain period of time
Incidence Number of new cases in given period
Changes in numbers of people with a disorder Incidence
Percentage of population who will have specific disorder at some time during life Prevalence
Inferential Studies Use statistical techniques: Correlation/Experiment
Correlation is an Inferential Study
Experiments are Inferential Studies
Covariation Which variables appear to go together in Correlational Studies
Hindsight Bias Explanation for findings after study has occurred
a priori Before event so hypothesis tested by the study
Experimental Bias Biased in interpretation of results by personal beliefs, drive to succeed, pressure to publish research and reluctance to reveal negative/inconclusive findings
Cross-validation Mulitple research findings compiled by repeating initial method
Studies critically reviewed by other reasearchers & must meet approval by peers Cross-validation
Meta-Analysis Compiling results of numerous studies on particualr phenomenon & analyzing compiled data
Potential unknown/unmeasurable influenes on particular study minimized Meta-Analysis
Generating explanation of situation/event after it has already occurred Hindsight Bias
Empirical Research Serves to legitimize work in the field
Study revealing depression associated with lack of assertiveness Correlation Study
Study on violent TV shows leading to more aggression: 1 group does not see any violent TV shows and the other only sees violent TV shows and displays more aggression Experimental Study
Sample Subjects chosen from overall population to be used for the research
Population Large group from which sample pulled and results of research will be applied
Representative Sample Sample whose traits reflect those of the population as a whole on some basis
Reliability Consisency with which something is measured
Validity Ability to accuratley measure/predict logical correctness of proposition/conclusion
Frequency Distribution Table showing number of subjects falling into subdivisions based on a variable of interest
Histogram Graph of the Frequency Distribution Table
Range Entire set of data from lowest number to highest number
Outliers Data results existing far removed from main "cluster" of data observed/recorded that affect the range of data
Central Tendency Mean, median, mode
Mean Arithmetic average of scores: Add all the values in the data set and divide by the total number of values
Mode Most common occurring value throughout data set
Median Middle of the data set: Findings from smallest to largest and middle point so 1/2 below that number and 1/2 above that number EG: 1,2,3,4,5,6 (3.5 is the median) 1,2,3,4,5 (3 is the median)
Correlation Coefficient Correspondence between scores/ratings of 2 different variables ranging from -1 to +1
Correlation Coefficient +1 Both variables correspond perfectly to each other Eg(1 set measured in inches and the other in centimeters, but 1" = 2.5cm)
Correlation Coefficient -1 Ratings between both variables are perfect opposites Eg(lines drawn across a piece of paper of different lengths)
Correlation Coefficient 0 No relationship or corresondence found Eg(intelligence and number of pickles eaten)
Statistical Significance Degree to which research results have NOT occurred by chance typically at 0.05 (stating 99.5 accuracy).
Descriptive Statistics Summarize data by describing general trends/characteristics
Inferential Statistics Allow researches to determine how likely results found reflect real-world findings
T-Test Inferential Statistics analyzing differences between 2 groups
ANOVA Inferential Statistics analyzing differences between multiple groups
Glial Cells Special cells that are part of the complex network on the nervous system
Nervous System Responsible for internal bodily functions and response to external stimuli
Central Nervous System Nerves in brain & spinal cord - Autonomic system
Peripheral Nervous System Nerves throughout remainder of body
Neurons Basic building blocks - individual nerve cells
Sensory/Afferent Neurons Carry information from various sense organs to brain
Interneurons Carry information from neuron to neuron
Motor/Efferent Neurons Carry information from brain to muscles
Dendrites Network of filaments carrying information from other neurons to cell body
Cell Body Part of the neuron containing nucleus where dendrites converge
Axon Single fiber conduction action potential pathway from cell body
Neuron Anatomy Stimulus received via dendrites into cell body out through axon
Nodes of Ranvier "Gaps" within myelin sheath that covers the axon
Myelin Fatty material sheath protecting axon which helps speed up conduction of action potentials
Resting Potential electric charge at rest (-70mlv)
Refractory Period Restoration of neuron to resting state
Synapse Gap between nerve cells of synaptic vesicles
Synaptic Vesicles Structures at nerve cell gap that transmit neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitter Chemical released by neurons to deliver information to other neurons
Excitatory Neurotransmitters Cause depolarization in recipient cell and increase likelihood of triggering action potential
Inhibatory Neurotransmitters Cause hyperpolarization in proceeding cell and suppresses action potential
Neuron Action Potential Stimulation exceeds threshold of neuron, Na+ and K+ rush into cell and change to +50mlv initiating response
Agonists Drugs produce same effect as neurotransmitters
Antagonists Drugs which inhibit effects of neurotransmitter
Supports ability of humans to think and act Nervous System
Patrick's scale consistently yields 4oz error Patrick's scale is reliable but not valid
Of the 750 people included in our study, 81% reported a decrease in symptoms following treatment Descriptive Statistics
Center of all nervous system activity Brain
3 main sections of brain Brain Stem, Midbrain and Cerebral Cortex
Brain Stem "oldest" part of brain first to develop in course of evolution 2 structures: pons/medulla
Medulla Directly connected to spinal cord Monitors reflex functions & control involuntary reflexes Nerve cross over from right to left & vice-versa
Pons Relay station Sorts out & redirects individual nerve impulses Influences sleep-wake cycle
Influences sleep-wake cycle Pons
Nerves cross over from body to brain Medulla
Contains Medulla & Pons Brain Stem
"Oldest" part of brain Brain Stem
First to develop in course of evolution Brain Stem
Directly connected to spinal cord Medulla
Monitors reflex functions Medulla
Controls involuntary reflexes Medulla
Relay Station of brain Pons
Reticular Activating System (RAS) Nerve fiber bundle reponsible for arousal from sleep Part of Pons
Bundle of nerve fibers responsible for arousal from sleep Reticular Activating System
Filters sensory information in/out of consciousness Reticular Activating System
Midbrain Cerebellum & Limbic System
Cerebellum Coordination of movement & muscle development
Coordination of movement & muscle development Cerebellum
Cerebellum & Limbic System Midbrain
Limbic System Septum, Amygdala, Hippocampus Handles basic emotional functioning
Handles basic emotional functioning Limbic System
Septum, Amygdala, Hippocampus Limbic System
Septum Regulates Amygdala
Amygdala Produces rage when stimulated
Septal Rage When septum damaged - anger, aggression, violence
Hippocampus Processes new information into long-term memory
Processes new memories Hippocampus
Amnesia patients Trauma to Hippocampus
Thalamus Integrates & organizes nerve impulses passing between parts of cerebral cortex Focuses especially on impulses from sensory experiences except smell to appropriate region of cortex
Organizes nerve impulses passing between parts of cerebral cortex Thalamus
Directs impulses resulting from sensory experiences except smell to appropriate regions in cortex Thalamus
Hypothalamus Important for primary critical body functions
Thirst, temperature, hunger Hypothalamus
Respiration & heart rate Medulla
Eye blinks, breathing, involuntary swallowing Medulla
Hormonal regulator Hypothalamus
Motivation & influences aggressive and sexual impulses Hypothalamus
Medial Forebrain Bundle Major pleasure center
Major pleasure center Medial Forebrain Bundle
Reward Pathway Stimulation of neurons perceived as pleasure
Cerebral Cortex Center for higher brain function: language, perception, cognition, voluntary motor movements
Language, perception, cognition Cerebral Cortex
Voluntary motor movements Cerebral Cortex
Neocortex Cerebral Cortex
80% of brain Cerebral Cortex
Hemispheric specialization Each hemisphere primarily controls different functions of brain
Left Hemisphere Controls right side of body Responsible for cognitive functions (language, analytical abilities) and formal, sequential approaches to task
Language, analytical abilities Left Hemisphere
Formal, sequential approaches to tasks Left Hemisphere
Right Hemisphere Controls left half of body Creative functions Visual & spatial orientation Perception of emotions
Creative functions Right Hemisphere
Visual & spatial orientation Right Hemisphere
More involved in perception of emotions Right Hemisphere
Corpus Callosum Bundle of nerves connecting both hemispheres
Stop frequency of epileptic seizures in severe cases Severing Corpus Callosum
Frontal Lobes Language, planning, conceptualization skills & motor functions
Language, planning, concepualization skills & motor functions Frontal Lobes
Parietal Lobes Sensation of touch
Occipital Lobes Visual Information
Temporal Lobes Auditory Information
Plasticity Ability of brain to compensate for certain injuries/malformations
Brain most "plastic" Up to age of 5
Peripheral Nervous System Somatic & Autonomic
Somatic Nervous System Connects central nervous system to voluntary muscles
Autonomic Nervous System Connects central nervous system to involuntary organs/muscles
Sympathetic Nervous System Autonomic - Prepares body for energy expenditure
Parasympathetic Nervous System Autonomic - Prepares body for restoration of energy
Energy Expenditure Sympathetic Nervous System
Restoration of energy Parasympathetic Nervous System
Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous Systems Autonomic Nervous System - involuntary
Involuntary Control Autonomic Nervous System
Voluntary Control Somatic Nervous System
Endocrine System Glands that influence metabolism, emotional states, sexual development/reproduction, horomones
Hypothalamus Command Center for endocrine system
Pituitary Controls Hypothalamaus "Master Gland"
Thyroid/Parathyroid Control metabolism rates
Adrenals Release adrenaline - fight/flight
Pancreas Produces insulin to control sugar metabolism
Testes/Ovaries Physical development, sexual behavior & reproduction
Heart & Lungs Controlled by Autonomic Nervous System
Sensation Process of converting physical energy of environment into neural energy processed by nervous systems
Transduction Process by which external energy becomes neural impulses
Information Processing Theory Information enters body (sensation) and then we interpret this information (perception)
Perception Organize/interpret sensory information to understand it cognitively
5 basic senses Vision - most complex Audition Gustation - taste Olfactory Kinesthesia
Absolute threshold Point one perceives external stimulus
Signal detection No single absolute threshold - different for each person based on experience, expectation, motivation, fatigue level
Difference threshold Minimal difference that must exist between 2 stimuli for one to distinguish difference AKA JND - Just Noticebale Difference Weber
JND - Just Noticeable Difference Difference Threshold
Feature detectors Nerve cells of brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus. Allow brain to assemble perceived image
Brain assembles perceived image Feature detectors
Sensory adaptation Diminishing sensitivity to unchanging stumulus as nerve cells begin to fire less frequently after constant exposure to the stimulus
Weber's Law 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum proportion/percentage for person to perceive difference
Absolute difference between 2 stimuli not as important as percentage of difference Weber's Law
Synesthesia Unusual sensory experience when one confuses senses - taste a sound/see a smell
Sensory receptors connected to "wrong" nerves Synesthesia
Dominance of 1 sense over another to emotional association to particular stimuli Synesthesia
Focusing on informative changes in environment without being distracted by uninformative/unchanging elements Sensory adaptation
Cornea Clear outer membrane covering eye Curved allowing light to bend and focus images
Iris Ring-shaped muscle opens/closes pupil
Lens Behind pupil Changes shapes depending on distance Becomes less malleable with age
Retina Photoreceptors of eye where image finally focused
Fovea Center point in retina where image focused
Rods Slender, elongated, cylinder-shaped photoreceptors sensitive to change in light waves
Peripheral & night vision Rods
Cones Short fat photoreceptors taper to pointed tip located away from center of retina
Color perception Cones
Young-Helmholtz theory Retina has 3 types of color receptors: red, green blue
Hering's Opponent Process theory 2 additional color processes: red vs green and yellow vs blue
Negative Afterimage Staring at color image, see same image in "opposite" colors after shifting eyes away
Cones function as predicted Young-Helmholtz theory
Cells in thalamus seem to work as predicted Hering's theory
Photoreceptors Nerves for visual transferrence: Electrical impulses via optic nerve and thalaums to visual cortex of brain
Visual cortex Feature receptors: nerves programmed only to perceive particular shapes, colors, movements, etc.
Perception of particular shapes, colors, movement, etc Visual cortex via feature receptors
Properties of sound Amplitude, frequency, pruity, timbre
Amplitude Height of sound wave (loudness)
Frequency Number of times sound wave repeats itself Humans detect range 20-20,000Hz
Pure Sound Domination by single-frequency waves
Timbre Sharpness of a sound
Place Theory Hear different pitches because sound waves trigger different places along cochlear basilar membrane inside ear
Frequency Theory Firing rate of nerve cells matches frequency of sound wave triggering impulses to brain at same frequencly as the sound wave
High pitches perceived Place Theory
Low pitches perceived Frequency Theory
Conduction Deafness Problems with sound wave conduction to the cochlea
Nerve Deafness Damage to cochlear hair cell receptors or associated nerves
Skin Sensations Pressure, warmth, cold, pain
Pain Early warning signal indicating something wrong
Gate Control Theory Spinal cord contains neurological gate blocking/allowing pain signals to pass on to brain & be perceived
Kinesthesia Sense of position & movement of body parts in relation to each other Allows us to perceive where body is positioned in space via receptors through CNS
Equilibratory sense Responsible for sense of balance, acceleration, deceleration & direction of gravity
Dizziness - Motion Sickness Fluid within 3 semicircular canals & 2 vestibular sacs shifts dramatically causing overstimulation
Olfactory Organs Small mucous epithelium areas on nasal septum
Sense of Smell Triggered in cerebral cortex & limbic systems via olfactory nerves connected to the olfactory bulb triggering memories of past events
Phermones Chemicals produced as method of communication through odor to attract another - related to production of sex hormones
Gustatory System Sense of taste through receptors located on surface of tongue, pharynx and larynx projected to thalamus then sensory cortex of brain where becomes correlated with information from olfactory organs
Taste buds Contain many gustatory cells which extend hairlike microvilli into surrounding fluid Some can only detect 1 taste, others can detect all 4
Sense of Taste Sweet, sour, salty, bitter
Sweet Taste Tip of tongue
Salty Taste Sides & tip of tongue
Sour Taste Sides of tongue
Bitter Taste Back of tongue
Sensory Interaction Means by which 1 sense influences/interacts with another (smell and taste together)
Perception Processing sensation so they can be understood cognitively
Attention Selectivity used to process sensations
Orientation Position sense organs to maximize ability to process stimuli
Cupping ear - squinting Orientation
Selective Attention Prioritizing some stimuli over other & ignoring low-priority stimuli
Watching TV over listening to parents Selective Attention
Bottleneck Model Biological limitations to amount of stimulation we can process
Capacity Model Psychological limitations determine amount of stimulation we can process
Perception Research Gestalt psychologists
Figure Focal point discernible from surroundings
Ground Surroundings or background of focal point
More than 1 perception can be triggered by same stimulus True Statement
Visual Grouping Proximity Similarity Continuity Closure Connectedness
Proximity Visually grouping nearby figures together
Similarity Visually grouping similar figures together
Continuity Perceiving smooth continuous patterns of figures
Closure Completing figures with gaps to create a whole object
Connectedness Perceiving spots, lines, areas as single unit when figures uniform & linked
Depth Perception Ability to see objects in 3-D to estimate distance
Binocular cues Requires both eyes to process visual cues: Retinal disparity & Convergence
Retinal disparity Binocular cue allowing us to determine distance of object by the differences in images produced by both eyes
Convergence Binocular cue which is muscular movement determines extent to which eyes turn inward. Brain determines focal distance by angle of convergence
Monocular cues Visual cues processed by each eye separately: Relative size Linear perspective Texture gradient Relative motion Overlap
Relative size If 2 objects similar in size, perceive the 1 that casts the smaller image on the retina as farther away
Linear perspective Parallel lines appear to converge in distance
Texture gradient Closer objects appear to have greater detail
Perceptual constancy Ability to see objects as unchanging even if illumination & retinal images change by size, shape & brightness
Identifying things regardless of distance, illumination or angle viewed Perceptual constancy
Color constancy If we are aware of object's color, we will continue to perceive the object as that color
Visual acuity Ability to discriminate between images/objects
Perceptual set Occurs when person's belief or expectation influences perception
Attending to certain elements of stimuli while ignoring others Perceptual set
Contrast Abiity to differentiat something from the other stimuli surrounding it
The more intense a stimulus The greater the likelihood it will be selected for further perceptual processing: Motion Repitition
Illusions Occur when one's perception of a stimulus differs significantly from actual properties.
Characteristics of stimulus often not as important as characteristics of receiver Illusion
Motivation Effects perception in that we notice or see what interests us
Mental set Predisposed way we perceive somthing usually from past experiences
ExtraSensoryPerception Claim one can perceive things imperceptible to others
Telephathy ESP - mind-to-mind communication
Clairvoyance ESP - perception of remove events in time/space
Precognition ESP - perception of future events
Parapsychology "Beside Psychology" Individuals who attempt to use scientific methods to study ESP
Consciousness Awareness of external environment as well as internal events such as thoughts & feelings.
Conscious (Controlled) Processing Process events one at a time giving each our undivided attention
Unconscious (Automatic) Processing Process large amount of information simultaneously without awareness
Driving a car: monitoring speed, placement on road, pressure of foot on pedals, hands on steering wheel Unconscious/Automatic Processing
Avoiding hitting cars Conscious/Controlled Processing
Selective attention Ability to focus on only limited aspect of all we are capable of experiencing
Focusing on one conversation that is no louder than other conversations going on in same area Cocktail party effect
Sleep Stages 4 Stages Stages 2,3,4 repeat every 90 minutes with Stage 4 getting longer each cycle
Stage 1 Sleep Appx 2 minutes Sensory images...hallucinations Falling/Floating sensation Jerking Thought processes become illogical
Stage 2 Sleep Appx 20 min Relax more deeply EEG - bursts of brain wave activity Awakens easily
Stage 3 Sleep Transitional few minuts EEG - beginnings of delta waves
Stage 4 Sleep Appx 30 minutes initially Resistant to awakening Walk/Talk in sleep EEG - large slow delta waves
REM Sleep After appx 1 hour, deep sleep for 10 min in Stage 4 Important role in learning Most dreams occur
Most dreaming REM Cycle
Dreams Daily life experiences Most common: falling, being chased/attacked and attempting but failing to do something
Information Processing Theory Dreams helpful to process experiences for day & encode disturbing/anxiety-provoking events
Freud & dreams Release of taboo feelings blocked by defense mechanisms when awake.
Activation-Synthesis Theory Hobson & McArthy Random firing of nerves in brain stem activate parts of cerebral cortex which inteprets based on stored memories attempting to make sense or synthesize pattern of neuron firings
Hobson & McArthy Activation-Synthesis Theory
Dysomnias Problems related to amount, time, quality of sleep
Insomnia Inability to fall asleep or remain asleep
Parasomnia Abnormal events occur during sleep
Narcolepsy Overwhelming sleepiness & falling into brief REM periods during waking hours
Sleep Apnea Intermittent periods of arrested breathing during sleep
Dream Anxiety Disorder Frequent & disruptive nightmares
Night Terrors Screaming or talking incoherently during Stage 4 in first few hours of sleep. Rarely wakens fully and often does not remember anything upon waking
Sleep & Age Sleep less & REM time decreases
Delirium Impaired thinking whose source is biological Demonstrate profound difficulty paying attention & focusing
Profound difficulty paying attention & focusing Delirium
Dementia Pervasive cognitive impairment from compromised nervous system. Attend conversations & focus attention but have troubles with memory
Able to attend conversation & focus attention but trouble with memory Dementia
Amnestic Syndrome Impairment of memory caused by neurological problems interfering with self-identity
Hypnosis Focused attention is relaxed/lessened Inhibition lowered Anxiety reduced Pain perception lowered
Highly hynotically susceptible people Those easily engrossed in fantasy & imaginary activities
Induction 1st stage of Hynosis Focusing attention on constant or repetitive imagined stimulus becoming relaxed but alert & focused on this one thing
Suggestion 2nd stage of hypnosis Whatever is wished to be achieved thru session
Concerns with hypnosis Planting false memories: refreshed memories may combine reality with falsehood leading to fabricated memories
Dissociation 2 parts of the brain are functioning concurrently but not communicating with each other
Meditation Mental exercise to control one's consciousness by focusing on sounds/images and attaining state of relaxation
Stress Reduction Responds well to meditation
Alpha Waves Begin during the awakened but drowsy state
Delta Waves Occur during sleep stages 3 and 4
Psychoactive Substances Alter consciousness in some way Classified into 6 categories based on composition, physiological and psychological effects
CNS depressents Alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines
Stimulants Amphetamines, cocaine, nicotines, caffeine
Opiates Heroin, opium, morphine, methadone, codeine, demerol, darvon, percodan
Hallucinogens LSD, mushrooms
Cannabinoids Marijuana and hashish
Solvents Glue and gasoline
Chemicals Not part of Psychoactive categories
Energy, exhileration, talkativeness and mood elevation Stimulants
Caffeine, nicotine Common everyday stimulants
Mild overdose of stimulants Perspiration, suspiciousness, insomnia
Severe overdose of stimulants Heart attacks, seizures, death
Weight loss, lifestyle narrowing, depression Long-term effects of stimulants
Tolerance Develops fairly rapidly with stimulants, CNS depressants and cannabinoids
Anhedonia Feeling like nothing is enjoyable
Withdrawl of psychoactive substances Usually the reverse of their action
Slow heart rate, relax muscles and promote sleep CNS depressants
CNS depressants first effects Social disinhibition - allowing individuals to temporarily forget worries & enjoy the moment
Alcohol part of postwork routine around the world True statement
Primary effect of CNS depressants Depress CNS leading to relaxation, slurred speech, impaired motor coordination
Benzodiazepines More specific than barbiturates thus safer
Mild overdose of CNS depressants Sleepiness, emotional dysregulation, lack of coordination and decreased judgement
Severe overdose of CNS depressants Blackouts, unconsciousness, coma leading to death
Combining barbiturates & alcohol Very dangerous combination leading to death
Withdrawl from CNS depressants Very dangerous - tremors, seizures, death
Across all substances, worst long-term effects to major organ systems Alcohol
Korsokoff's syndrome Similar to Alzheimer's caused by long-term heavy drinking
Opiates Reduce pain & sense of urgency related to biological needs Referred to as narcotics
Narcotics Opiates
Opioids Synthetic drugs mimic effects of opiates
Methadone Opioid
Overdose of opioids Bradycardia, hypotension, decreased respirations, low body temperature, decreased relfexes and death
Endorphins Body's naturally occuring opioid-like substances
Hallucinogens De-automatization, sensory illusions occur and experience synesthesia
Depersonalization may occur Hallucinogens
De-automatization Increased awareness of cognitive processes
Overdose of hallucinogens Unusual & frightening psychological experiences while intoxicated
Already-occuring psychotic processes accelerated Hallucinogens
Cannabinoids Marijuana & hashish
Mild euphoria, heightened receptive sense of humor, increased appetite, distorted sense of time, disruptions in logical thinking Cannabinoids
Enhanced visual and auditory perception, decreased short-term memory functioning, decreased physical coordination, possible paranoia/panic Cannabinoids
Cannabinoid withdrawl Irritability, insomnia, restlessness, decreased appetite
Long-term effects marijuana use Primarily related to practice of smoking
Solvents Glue, amyl nitrate, kerosene, paint thinner
Inhaled and most often 1st used product by adolescents Solvents
Damage to heart, kidney, liver, brain Toxic solvents (poisons)
Solvent negative effects Headaches, spasms, irregular heartbeat, occasional death
Effectiveness and potency of drug Related to speed of route of ingestion
Quicker route of absorption More addictive the drug
Shortened half-life More addictive the substance
Requiring more substance to produce similar effect Tolerance
Body rebounding in opposite direction when not taking substance Withdrawl
Learning behavior Essential to survival(innate sense)& adaptation to environment
Learning Durable change in behavior resulting from association and encoding into memory relationships between experiences
Habituation Simplest form of learning Repeated exposure, association or connection of sequential events
Maturation Knowledge gained when biologically ready
Required state for learning to occur Maturation
Ability to learn Determined by age-related mental & physical skills (Maturation)
Classical Conditioning Neutral stimulus paired with one that elicits automatic/unconditioned response - Pavlov's expereiment)
First discovered set of laws governing learning Classic conditioning
Pavlov Physiologist Conditioned response experiments - association
Unconditioned response Unconditionally activated innate response to stimulus (US) (dog's saliva production to presence of food)
Unconditioned stimulus Stimulus that always triggers natural biological process (UR) (food)
Conditioned response Learned response exhibited in response to conditioned stimuls (CS)(dog's saliva procudtion in response to bell, tone, light, empty food bowl)
Conditioned stimulus Neutral stimuls paired with unconditioned stimulus so will eventually com to produce the same response (bell, tone, light, empty foot bowl)
Skinner Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning Skinner Passive learning Associating behaviors with consquences either punishment or reward
Reinforcer Change in environment following behavior & increased likelihood behavior will be repeated - good or bad
Primary reinforcer Naturally enjoyable - food
Secondary reinforcer Ojbect/event becomes associated with primary reinforcer - money to buy food
Positive reinforcement Reward used to increase likelihood individual will repeat behavior
Negative reinforcement Removal of adverse stimulus increases likelihood individual will repeat behavior
Punishment Application of aversive stimulus decreased likelihood individual will repeat a behavior
Shaping Process of gradually guiding natural behavior toward another behavior through reinforcement
Successive approximation Process of reinforcement for engaging in behaviors increasingly similar to desired behavior
Acquisition Initial learning in response to reinforcement through consistency, immediacy & repetition of the reinforcement
Chaining Process which several related responses learned through operant conditiong
Learning everything one can about the ball, stance, bat, light, wind to become the best baseball batter Chaining
Generalization Expanding stiumuls-resonse pattern to include stimuli that are similar to initial stimulus
Being able to act in certain way with new situation because it resembles something else Generalization
Discrimination Process for distinguishing between slightly similar stimuli and responding to one but not another
Extinction Gradual breaking of the stimulus-response pattern due to lack of reinforcement (ignoring behavior will lead person to stop)
Continuous reinforcement Reinforcement every time desired behavior is performed
Intermittent reinforcement Reinforcement not given every time desired behavior performed Longer to shape behavior but more resistant to extinction
To decrease/resist extinction Intermittent reinforcement
Ratio schedules Schedule of reinforcement based on number of times certain behavior performed
Fixed Ratio schedule Reinforcement provided after specific number of responses Fastest initial response process
Fixed Interval schedule Reinforcement provided after specific period of time
Fixed schedule Reinforcement provided after particular set number of desired behavior or particular set amount of time performed
Interval schedule Reinforcement applied after certain amount of time
Variable schedule Reinforcement provided after differing amounts of time or numbers of behaviors
Constant & regular responses thru unpredictability Variable schedule
Variable Interval schedule Reinforcement provided after varying time periods
Variable Ratio schedule Reinforcement provided after fluctuating number of responses
Instinct drift Reversion to biologically predisposed patterns after learning patterns not naturally adopted
Natural instinct response limits capacity for operant conditioning Instinct drift
Kohler Psychologist studied insight
Insight Gaining sudden understanding of relationship between various parts of a problem/situation
Recognition of relationship between various parts of a problem/situation to solve it Insight
Kohler's Experiment Monkey, banana, box, stick
Monkey moves box under banana, stands on box and swings with stick to knock banana down Kohler's Insight
Bandura Modeling Bobo Doll experiment
Modeling Learning by observing & imitating another's behavior (reinforcement/punishment guide outcome)
Effective observation learning Attention (noticing modeled behavior & resultant consequences) Retention (conscious reflection/rehearsal of modeled behavior) Reproduction (successful enactment) Motivation(expectation of positive consequences)
Bobo Doll Experiment Bandura Video of adults hitting and kicking doll elicites same action by kids watching video
Reproduction Requires behavior to be within skill/range of learner
Auditory memory Sensory memory allowing "echoes" of sounds
Echoic memory Auditory memory
Recalling question when not actually having paid attention to it Auditory or Echoic memory
Automatic processing Occurs with little or no effort - automatically without awareness or paying special attention
Ability to recreate day's events Automatic processing
Context effect Recalling information best in environment learned
Taking test is same classroom as studied Context effect
Declarative memory Allows us to remember facts or events Long-term Semantic & Episodic
Semantic memory Declarative memory involving remembering bits of information
Knowing how many states in US Semantic memory
Episodic memory Declarative memory involving remembering personally experienced events
Effortful Processing Rentention of information requiring effort & attention - Rehearsal
Rehearsal Conscious repition of information in order to memorize it
Conscious repition of information Rehearsal - Effortful processing
Encoding Process of putting information into memory
Explicit memory Conscious memory of facts & experiences
Flashbulb memory Clear though not always accurate memory of significant event
Remembering details of Kennedy's assassination, but not the day before or after Flashbulb memory
Iconic memory Visual memory See traces of images
Visual memory Sensory memory allowing us to see traces of images AKA Iconic memory
Remembering swinging light Visual/Iconic memory
Imagery Use of mental pictures for encoding & retrieval of memory Retrieval cue
Implicit memory Retrieval of information without conscious awareness
Information Processing Modern View of sensing, perceiving, learning, thinking & remembering Automatic & Efforfull
Long-Term memory Limitless amount of information stored for life time if occured after certain level of maturation
Procedural memory Remembering how to do something. Long-Term memory
Memory Storage & access of mental representation of knowledge via hippocampus
Misinformation effect Incorporation of inaccurate information regarding event from others into own recollection
Mnemonic devices Aids/tricks to help remember more than would otherwise: Methods of loci (association w/ familiar locations) Acronyms (abbreviations - SOB, NKA, etc) Rhymes("Thirty days hath Sept...)
Priming Type of implicit (w/o conscious awareness) memory activating related associations Retrieval cue
Proactive interference Previously learned information interferes with recall of newly learned information
Recall Retrieval of previously learned information not currently in conscious awareness
Recognition Ability to identify/recognize previously learned information
Multiple choice tests Recognition
Repression Alteration or loss of painful/anxiety-provoking memories
Retrieval Extracting iinformation from memory for use
Retrieval cues Provide reminder for information not otherwise accessable from memory: Priming & Imagery
Retroactive interference Newly learned information interferes with recall of old information
Sensory memory Initial record lasting only very brief period of time - usually visual/auditory
Serial position effect Ability to recall first or last piece of a group of information rather than the middle
Remembering "ABCD" and "WXYZ" only Serial position effect
Short-term memory Information activley attented to which lasts 15-30 seconds - Working memory - Intentional memory
Recalling a phone number just obtained Short-term memory Working memory Intentional memory
Spacing effect Learning over time enabling better long-term retention than cramming
Learning over time for better retention Spacing effect
State dependence Ability to recall information when in same internal state as learned it
Being in same internal state when recalling information as learned it State dependence
Storage Relatively passive process keeping information in memory for periods of time
Working memory Another name for short-term memory 15-30 seconds Intentional memory
Reconstruction Remember certain details then add further information based on what believed to have happened from subtle suggestions
Event remembered with confidence but incorrectly Reconstruction
Accomodation Process of expanding one's schemas to accomodate new information when no longer adequate to represent them
Assimilation Process of taking new experience & incorporating it into existing category, concept idea
Cognition Ways in which aquire, retain, interpret, use knowledge
Psychological processes & social/external influences on knowledge Cognition
Concrete operations stage 7 - 11 y/o Begin to think logically about concrete evets, grasp concrete analogies and perform arithmetic operations
Stage child begins to understand conservation Concrete operations stage
Conservation Idea that given quantity remains same despite shape changes
Formal operations stage 12 - adulthood Characterized by ability to reason abstractly
Scientific reasoning & deducing consequences - Potential present for mature moral reasoning Formal operations stage
Preoperational stage 2 - 6 y/o Words & images represent things Ability to pretend Egocentric
Stage lack logical reasoning but pretend & egocentric Preoperational stage
Schemas Concepts that consolidate past experiences & offer model for understanding future experiences
Allows children to adapt to environmental demands as new experiences are assimilated or accomodated Schemas
Sensorimotor stage 1 - 2 y/o Undertand world through looking & touching
Object performance, separation anxiety, stranger anxiety Sensorimotor stage
Egocentric Cannot perceive things from another's viewpoint
The fewer instincts animal has, the more it relies on learning to survive Connection between instinctual behavior & learning
Learning multiplaction tables by rehearsing them outloud Effortful processing
Assimilation Associating new concept with previous knowledge
Accomodation Altering previous knowledge in light of new concepts
Perceptions of the world that develop out of and are organized around individual's experiences Schemas
Intellectual development according to Piaget Occurs because humans wish to make sense of the world around them
Achievement tests Designed to determine what has already been learned
Aptitude tests Predict ability to learn new skills
SAT Best known aptitude test
Requirements of tests Standardized Reliable Valid
Factor approach Contends different cognitive abilities are distinct but correlated
"g" factor General intelligence Underlying specific intelligences/abilities that may vary Basis of the idear of IQ
Infants level of response to stimuli Indicator of "g" factor
Intelligence Ability to learn information & solve problems
What affects intelligence Nature, genetics (60%) and environment
IQ Intelligence quotient - number to describe level
95% of population IQ levels 70 - 130
Mental retardation Impaired intellectual functioning combined with impaired social functioning affecting about 3% of population
4 levels of mental retardation Mild Moderate Severe Profound
Mild retardation Can, with help, achieve up to about 6th grade level of functioning as well as vocational skills sufficient to work regularly
Moderate retardation Can develop skills up to 2nd grade and may learn to perform unskilled labor with supervision
Severe retardation May learn to talk, count, read few key words and develop basic hygiene/self-care skills
Profound retardation Most devastating form Require close supervision and highly structured environments
Reification Abstract concept is eventually viewed as reality itself
Spearman "g" factor leading to IQ
Gardner Frames of mind: Linguistics Logical - Math Spatial Musical Bodily kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal
Sternberg Triarchic model: Analytic Creative Practical
Imagination Ability to perceive things in new ways
Expertise Well developed knowledge base
Intrinsic motivation Ability to be motivated & satisfied by task itself rather than relying on external factors
Venturesome personality Tolerance for ambiguous situations & ability to persevere in new experiences & overcome obstacles
"g" factor suggests General intelligence provides base for different types of intelligence
IQ scores vary across racial groups due to Cultural differences in way tasks are learned
Ginny excels at reading, writing, literacy Marie excels at math, statistics, numerical analysis Which has higher IQ Impossible to determine as every person has strengths/weaknesses not reflective of overall IQ
Weschler Adult Intellegence Scale mostly used Clinical settings
Babbling Impromput vocalization of a variety of sounds about 4 months of age
Grammer Set of rules that enable us to communicate thru language
Language Primary vehicle thru which humans express thoughts
Linguistic relativity hypothesis Whorf Language determines thought
If language has no words for something Won't be considered per Whorf
If language has several distinct words for somthing Small variation of thing most likely to be perceived/considered per Whorf
Morphemes Smallest elements of language that have meaining
One-word stage Starts around age 1 with child starting to use 1-syllable words that carry meaning
Phonemes Group of elementary sounds
Two-word stage Starts around age 2 with child using 2-word statements made up mostly of nouns & verbs
Parts of language Phonemes Morphemes Grammer
Child's statements mostly made of nouns & verbs Two-word stage
Child's use of one-syllable words that carry meaning One-word stage
Basis for much of internal thought Language
Skinner Language learned thru association, imitation, reinforcement
Praising child for corretly idetifying object Skinner
Chomsky Language creative & conceptual - acquisition thru innate tendency
Surface structure (syntax/grammer and deep structure Chomsky
Ability to understand phrases/sentences not previously learned Chomsky
Eskimos have many words for snow (perceived subtle differences) Whorf - Linguistic relativity hypothesis
Language determines Thought
Algorithm Methodical logical procedure for problem solving which is slower than heuristics but less prone to error
Slower problem solving technique which is less prone to error Algorithm
Availability heuristic Shortcut based upon most available memories
Choosing to drive rather than fly due to fear of dying in plane crash Availability heuristic
Confirmation bias Bias when searching for information to confirm or support preconceived ideas
Asking leading questions to solve/discover truth of situation Confirmation bias
Fixation Cannot think of situation in new way because cannot escape current conception of the sitution
Framing Way topic presented which can affect judgement or decision-making process
Cell phone ad showing boss being able to be away from the office Framing
Functional fixedness Perception of the functions of an object are fixed and allow no other creative uses of the object
Heuristics Shortcuts to problem solving - rules of thumb
Expression "i before e except after c" Heuristic
Insight Sudden development of solution though most likely worked through step-by-step or trial & error until reached and "noted"
Mental set Solution worked in past is repeatedly attempted despite fact no longer works
Metacognition Thinking about thinking in order to improve cognitive ability
Prototypes Idealized versions of concepts
Bird may be "seen" as any flying bird as opposed to an Emu/Ostrich Prototypes
Representativeness heuristic Shortcut relied upon from impression of an ambiguous piece of information and how closely fits familiar defined structure
Trial and error learning Trying out solutions that come to mind or suggested until find what works
Using a magnet to hold a note to metal filing cabinet Example of functional fixedness
Achievement motivation Drives person's intensity, persistence and effort to obtain goal
Anorexia nervosa Strong illusory belief one is fat resulting in self-starvation
Arousal phase 2nd component sexual response cycle
Breathing, blood pressure, pulse rates increase along with genital engorgement Arousal phase
Bulimia nervosa Compulsive overeatiing followed by self-induced purging
Desire phase 1st component sexual response cycle
Increased blood flow & lubrication to genital area Desire phase
Double-depletion hypothesis Biological causes of thirst caused from combination of intracellular/extracullar processes/exchange
Drive Energy/tension developing from specific need
Extrinsic motivation Seeking achievement to receive reinforcement from others or to avoid punishment
Extrinsic or Intrinsic motivated people achieve less Extrinsic
Homeostasis Process of maintaining constant/balanced state despinte changes in environment
Hunger & thirst Strong motivators of homeostasis
Intimacy Close interpersonal relationship with open communication
Intrinsic motivation Internal desire for achievement for own sake to personal goa.
Lazy, unreliable and motived by money/reward employees as seen by X managers
Motivated workers for reasons other than reward/money as seen by Y managers
Maslow's hierarchy Pyramid theory prioritizing needs over behavior
Biological/Psychological Needs Basic life needs in Maslow's theory
Safety Security & stability in Maslow's theory
Belongingness Fulfilling need for affiliate with others in Maslow's theory
Esteem Competence, independence, success leading to respect from others in Maslow's theory
Self-actualization Abstract & different needs to fulfil life goals & potential in Maslow's theory
Increase hunger Lateral hypothalamus stimulation
Depress hunger Ventromedial hypothalamus stimulation
Specific hunger Biological need for component: low sodium, increased desire for salty foods
Motivation Driving force influencing behavior & focusing it toward an end
Need Lack of a biological necessity
Orgasm 3rd component of sexual response cycle
Muscle spasms with dominating sense of pleasure Orgasm
Resolution Final component of sexual response cycle
Body returns to normal Resolution
Sensate focus Technique to overcome sexual dysfunction based on performance/fear/pain related to sex
Set point Fixed weight level due to competition of the lateral & ventromedial hypothalamus
Sexual dysfunction Difficulty in one phase of sexual response cycle
Primary motives Biological
Acquired motives Learned thru experience
Melzack Pain Gate Theory
Henry Murray Human motivation in 3 criteria: Attention Consequences Dissatisfaction
Thermatic Apperception Test Murray Responding to pictures w/o clear directions/significance (ink blots?)
Instinct Innate fixed pattern of behavior
Newborn's rooting Instinct
Cannon-Bard theory Body's response begins as we experience emotion and one does not cause the other
Catharsis Emotional release or venting of anger
James-Lange theory Emotion felt after notice body's response
Feeling glad/happy after smiling and sad after frowning James-Lange theory
Polygraph Machine measuring respiration, pulse and breathing while being asked questions to determine honesty
Schachter's two-factor theory Emotions composed of physical arousal and cognitive label
Components of emotions Physiological arousal Behavior Conscious experience
Basic emotions Fear, anger, sadness, joy
Complex emotions Guilt, shame, love
Fear Elicited by specific stimulus judged potentially harmful
Anxiety Occurs dispite absense of any real danger
People experience physiological & emotional reactions to stimuli simultaneously Cannon-Bard theory
Behavior genetics Study of how behavioral differences between people relate to biological differences
Cognitive development Changes in mental ability: learning, language, memory, thinking, reasoning
Relates to motor & emotional development Cognitive development
Concordance Similarity with regard to given trait
Twin Studies To determine concordance between monozygotic and dizygotic twins raised apart from birth
Conventional level Kohlberg: Rightness of behavior determined by reaction to approval/disapproval of others
Cross-sectional Studies Measures difference in people at 1 age or at 1 point in time
Studying groups of 1st graders Cross-sectional Studies
Developmental psychology Focuses on both the common & unique ways people grow & develop during course of lifetime
Longitudinal Studies Measures characterics of individuals over time to see how they grow/change
Physical development Changes in body, motor abilities & sensory capacity over time
Major influence on developing personality & intelligence Physical development
Postconventional level Kohlberg: decisions justified by internalized standard & the common good
Preconventional level Kohlberg: Rightness of behavior determined on its rewards/punishment by society
Psychosocial stages Erickson: 8 stages of development progregessing through each crisis, resolution allowing one to move to next stage and develop new virtue
Social-emotional development Changes in person's style of responding, feeling and relating to others
How one gets along with others and feels Social-emotional development
Gender Studies As people age, differences decrease and found to vary among different cultures
Erikson 8 stages of Virtue
Kohlberg Moral Reasoning: Preconventional, Conventional & Postconventional
Gilligan Morality of Caring: Men use reason, rules & obligations Women use preserving integrity of relationships (substandard)
Locke Tablua rasa "blank slate" Strong belief in nurturing shaping development
Nature Heredity
Nurture Environment
Study focusing on changes across different dimensions Development psychology
Studies used to compare development of an individual with peers Longitudinal or Cross-sectional
Gender identity influenced by Psychological and social characteristics
Eight stages of development proposed by Erik Erikson; each stage involves a specific crisis, and resolution of this crisis will allow an individual to successfully move on to the next stage and develop a new “virtue.” Psychosocial Studies - Erickson
Trust vs mistrust Resolution: sense of safety Lack of Resolution: insecurity, anxiety
Autonomy vs self-doubt Resolution: Self-efficacy Lack of Resolution: sense of helplessness, lack of control
Intitiative vs guilt Resolution: self-confidence Lack of Resolution: lack of self-confidence
Competency vs inferiority Resolution: adequate social/intellectual skills Lack of Resolution: feelings of failure, inadequacy
Identity vs role confusion Resolution: self-comfort Lack of Resolution: uncomfortable with self
Intimacy vs isolation Resolution: closeness & committment to another Lack of Resolution: feeling of aloneness, separation
Generativity vs stagnation Resolution: ability focus beyond self Lack of Resolution: self-indulgence, lack of foresight
Integrity vs despair Resolution: satisfaction with life Lack of Resolution: futility, despair, disappointment
Infants Trust vs mistrust Safety
Toddlers Autonomy vs self-double Self-efficacy (capabilities)
Preschoolers Initiative vs guilt Self-confidence
School-age Competence vs inferiority Adequate social/intellectual skills
Adolescents Identity vs role confusion Self-comfort
Early adult Intimacy vs isolation Closeness & commitment to another
Middle adult Generativity vs stagnation Ability to focus beyond self
Late adult Integrity vs despair Satisfaction with life
Alleles Pairs of genes inherited (1 ea) from parents
AFP test Blood sample from mother during 16-17wk of pregnancy indicated possible birth defects
Alzheimer's Progressive & irreversible brain disorder
Amniocentesis Test done 16-18wk of pregnancy to determine presence certain birth defects
Recommended testing mothers over 35 Amniocentesis
Attachment Special bond between infant and caretakers thru body contact, familiarity, temperment & parenting
Imprinting Attachment
Ainsworth 3 stages of attachment: 1) responds socially, but may not distinguish between people 2) recognizes caretaker and responds differently to familiar people 3)_about 6 mo, develops attachment
Authoritarian parenting Dictated rules, expectation of compliance w/o explanation or reasoning or open discussion
Authoritative parenting Imposed rules explained and open to discussion
Best perceived parenting style Authoritative
Chromosomes Structures in cells containing DNA & protein
Building blocks Chromosomes
Crystallized intelligence Accumulated knowledge which continues to increase throughout life cycle
Embryonic Stage 3-9th week Various body parts form & organs begin to function
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Involves mental retardation caused by heavy drinking during pregnancy (teratogen effect)
Fetal Stage Prenatal development from 9th wk to birth with rapid growth
Fetus can survive Fetal Stage - 7th month
Fetoscopy Use of camera into uterus to visualize fetus or obtain fetal blood sample
Fluid intelligence Ability to reason abstractly & speedily which decreased with age
Intelligence which decreases with age Fluid intelligence
Down's Syndrome Extra 21st chromosome abnormality
Generativity Process of being individually productive while simultaneously being supportive of others
Genes Segment of DNA that function as hereditary units carrying code providing instruction to manufacture proteins
Genetic Counselors Specialists giving advice to couples regarding particular hereditary disorders/traits
Genotypes Genetic patterns of alleles that cannot be seen but can be modified through external exposure
Germinal Stage Prenatal develope from conception through 2nd week
Stage where zygot adheres to uterine wall & becomes an embryo Germinal Stage
Heterozygous Alleles that are different
Homozygous Alleles that are identical
Identity Perception of self as an individual
Menarche Initial menstrual period
Object performance Awareness objects exist even when out of view Piaget's sensorimotor stage
Permissive Parenting Parents acquiesce to child's demands, make few requirements and rarely if ever use punishment
Phenotypes Observatlbe traits of a color
Rejecting-neglecting Parenting Not being involved in child's life, expecting little and devoting little of own time/effort ir rearing child
Teratogens Chemicals, viruses, etc that cause physical defects in developing embryo
Most common Teratogen Alcohol
Ultrasound Sonogram of fetus to look for possible birth defects
Umbilical cord assessment Umbilical cord blood studied for liver function & other fetal bodily functions not measurable any other way
Kubler-Ross 5 Stages of Death & Dying: Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
Aging myths More vulnerable to illness Not as intellient Eventually beome senile Death preoccupies thoughts
Piaget Cognitive development stages: Sensorimotor - Learn sensory & motor contact Preoperational - Logical reasoning concrete Postoperational - Abstract reasoning
Infant development Based on biological maturation: lift head while prone - 2mo roll over - 3 to 4 mo sit up w/o support - 5 to 6 mo Pulls self up to stand - 7 to 9 mo Crawls - 7 to 12 mo
Language & motor abilities develop rapidly Toddler
Start becoming independent Toddler
Begin showing interest in other children Toddler
Need to communicate increases Early Childhood
Storm & Stress Adolescence turmoil due to lack of security achieving approval of peers & sense of parental alienation
Hall Storm & Stress
Develop concrete reasoning as well as hypothetical reasoning Adolescence
Predict consequences Adolescence
Moral reasoning more mature Adolescence
Child explains behavior is bad only when punished Kohlberg's Preconventional Stage
Erikson's first stage of development Trust vs mistrust
Identical twins separataed at birth excel at mathemtacial skills & perform far above average levels on standardized tests Mathematical reasoning ability may have strong genetic component
Research project comparing sensory capacity of 250 kindegarteners Cross-sectional study physical development
80 year old generally pleased with his life but disappointed with strained relationship with son Erickson's Integrity vs despair
Period from 3rd wk to 9th wk after conception Embryonic Stage
Period from conception through 2nd wk Germinal Stage
Period from 9th wk after conception to birth Fetal Stage
Genetic patterns that cannot be seen Genotypes
Anal stage Freud’s second stage of psychosexual maturation, which involves the task of becoming toilet trained during years two and three.
Compulsion, stubborness, controlling, perfectionist Anal Stage particularly harsh or demanding
Sloppiness, rebelliousness, disorganized Anal Stage problems
Archetypes Spiritual symbols that appear in many different cultures.
Jong's collective conscious symbols Archetypes
Behaviorism Branch of psychology founded on the notion that observable behavior is the only appropriate focus of psychology.
Behavior entirely conditioned thru environment Behaviorism
Compensation Ego defense mechanism that involves developing alternative behaviors and traits to make up for weaknesses.
Anxiety State of tension that motivates humans
Denial Ego defense mechanism that involves involuntary “blinding” of self to reality.
Displacement Ego defense mechanism that involves shifting negative feelings to “safer” targets.
Ego (I) The Freudian component of personality that attempts to meet one’s needs in a more realistic manner so that pleasure is maximized while punishment and harm to others are minimized.
In contact w/ external world & functions under reality principle Ego
Electra complex The phenomenon in human development that occurs anywhere from ages three to five when girls develop a bond with their father and develop a fear of or rivalry with their mother.
Phenomenon of girls in Phallic Stage Electra complex
Fixation The failure to resolve a certain psychosexual stage.
Becoming stuck due to stage being blocked causing inability to progress thru maturity Fixation
Genital Stage Freud’s final stage of psychosexual maturation, during which children begin to form adult sexual desires and interests, and the adult sexual identity begins to develop.
Humanistic theories Theories of personality that focus on the subjective experiences of individuals striving for meaning and growth.
Id (it) The Freudian component of personality that strives to gain immediate gratification without concern for its cost or effect upon others.
Instinctual urges, cravings & needs operating under pleasure principle id
Identification Ego defense mechanism that involves reducing moral anxiety by aligning self with a valued person, goal, or cause.
Introjection Ego defense mechanism that involves reducing anxiety by adopting values and standards of important others.
Latent stage Freud’s fourth stage of psychosexual maturation, during which children’s cognitive abilities and ego develop and their sexual development is largely “on hold.”
Learned helplessness Silyman Passive resignation, or a feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and depression that is sometimes experienced by people who face repeated traumatic events that they have no control over.
Learning theories Theories of personality that focus on learned patterns of behavior and cognitive interpretation of events.
Locus of control Rotter The place where people perceive to have the greatest influence over their behavior.
Moral anxiety Discomfort caused by superego punishment for violating personal morality or being imperfect.
Neurotic anxiety Unrealistic fear that one’s instincts will rule one’s behavior, thereby causing one to act in contrast to the demands of society, which will result in punishment.
Object relations theory A model that explores the relationship between people or things (objects) and the individual’s perceptions of these objects, based on the underlying concept that two people may see the same object but experience two extremely different reactions.
Oedipus complex The phenomenon in human development that occurs anywhere from ages three to five when boys develop a bond with their mother and develop a fear of or rivalry with their father.
Phenomenon of boys in Phallic Stage Oedipus complex
Oral stage Freud’s first stage of psychosexual maturation, during which children are focused on oral activities such as sucking nipples, fingers, and nearly anything else they can get into their mouths.
Eating disorders, smoking, drinking, excessive talking Becoming stuck in the oral stage
Personality Patterns of human behavior, cognition, and affect as they occur in everyday life across situations and over time.
Phallic stage Freud’s third stage of psychosexual maturation, during which children become aware of their genitals and begin to experience pleasure through fondling or rubbing them.
Stage where super-ego develops Phallic stage
Pleasure principle The principle stating that people seek immediate pleasure to avoid pain and to reduce tension.
Projection Ego defense mechanism that involves involuntary attribution of one’s own unacceptable feelings to others.
Psychodynamic theories Theories of personality that focus largely on unconscious conflicts and defenses.
Psychosexual stages Freud’s five stages of maturation: oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital.
Link between mental activity & instinct to seek pleasure Psychosexual stages
Rationalization Ego defense mechanism that involves reducing the effects of unacceptable outcomes by discounting their importance.
Reaction formation The process of substituting a particular reaction with its opposite reaction to avoid guilt, punishment, or another negative experience.
Realistic anxiety Fear of danger from the external world that is proportionate to actual threat.
Reality principle The principle stating that the human ego attempts to meet the demands of the id while simultaneously considering the mandates of society.
Learning to delay gratification while seeking long-term pleasure Reality principle
Regression Ego defense mechanism that involves reverting to an earlier developmental behavior to decrease anxiety.
Repression A kind of motivated forgetting, in which a person does not remember something because of the emotional pain or anxiety it causes.
Self-actualization The resolution of personal conflicts and achievement of emotional growth.
Sublimation The process of shifting the energy of one’s libido from primarily self-serving pursuits to those centered on service and advancement of society.
Superego (over I) The Freudian component of personality that considers the internalized beliefs and censures created by societal norms that strive to limit the ungoverned pursuit of gratification.
Part of brain concerning conscience, values & ideals Superego
Traits A person’s consistent behaviors and attitudes that last over time and across situations.
Major focus of psychological research Traits
Typology The process of defining categories of personality based on common traits rather than the personality traits of an individual.
Adler Sibling rivalry
Adler People strive for superiority to overcome inferiority complex
Adler Personality sum of person's interests, goals & desires
Jung Collective unconscious
Jung Spirituality containing archetypes
Horney Individuals need for love & security
Horney Childhood experiences solidify personality before adulthood
Horney Styles of interacting with others: Moving toward Moving away Moving against
Erikson 8 stages encompassing life span
Erikson & Infancy Establishing basic trust
Erikson & Adolescence Time for establishing identity
Erikson & Adulthood Intimacy, generativity & integrity
Rotter Locus of control
Internal locus Rotter Take credit for own success & blame other for failure
External locus Controlled by world: chance, fortune, fate
Rotter: better coping skills and greater sense of control Internal locus
Seligman Learned helplessness
Rogers Self concept center of personality: Genuiniess Acceptance Empathy
Genuisness Rogers Parents honest & open with children
Acceptance Rogers Parents exrpessed caring even with rule breaking
Empathy Rogers Parents view/understand thru child's view
Behavioral assessment An assessment process that aims to interpret a person’s responses and characteristics in a natural environment.
Observing person having problems at work while at the job Behavioral assessment
Clinical assessment A process that requires a client to respond (in person rather than on paper) to ambiguous questions, situations, or tasks so that the person conducting the assessment can interpret the responses.
Five-factor model "Big 5" A model that views human personality in terms of five general traits: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
OCEAN Acronym for the five-factor model
Idiographic approaches Approaches to studying personality that consider individuals as a whole and in the context of their situational surroundings.
Nomothetic approaches Approaches to studying personality that look at specific elements of personality (e.g., warmth or agreeableness) across groups of individuals, typically ignoring the context within which these elements or traits are enacted.
Self-efficacy The belief that one is able to perform the required behaviors to produce a desired outcome.
The higher opinion person has of this, the more they will persist in producing desired outcome Self-efficacy
Self-serving bias The tendency to think of oneself favorably.
90% people think they are above average in dealing/getting along with others Self-serving bias
Objective tests Reliable & valid Taker can be "normed"
MMPI2 Most widely used Objective test
Myers-Briggs Business & career counseling still use though not reliable/valid in empirical sense
NEO Widely used in clinical, counselling & educational settings of the Big 5
16PF Test used prior to NEO which was used to predict likely fitness into profession/occupation
Projective tests Allows one to "project" unconscious needs/wants onto ambiguous stimuli
TAT Looks into why, what occured with why person drew certain picture
Sentence completion Helps discover potential themes that characterize a person
According to Freud, attempts to meet a person's need for gratification while simultanesously considering dictates of society Ego & Reality
Decreasing anxiety by making one less vulnerable according to Horney Moving away
Abnormality That which inhibits the adaptation of an individual to the demands of his or her environment.
Depression leads to changes in work habits, sleeping & eating Abnormality
Abnormal psychology The scientific study of those aspects of human emotional, cognitive, and behavioral functioning that cause distress and maladaptivity.
Biopsychosocial framework A framework that considers each of the subsystems of human functioning—physical, psychological, and social—rather than concentrating on only one aspect, thus allowing for multiple treatment pathways for healing or improvement.
Study that does not specify a particular direction of causation between elements Biopsychosocial framework
Etiology The cause of a disorder.
Maladaptivity The inability to respond effectively to one’s environment.
Distress & suffering as elements of abnormality Either cause disturbance to individual or individuals behavior disturbs those around them
GAF Global Assessment of Functioning with 50/100 indicating presence of serious difficulties
Biological Model Abnormality result of physical causes while focusing on brain function
Psychodynamic Model Abnormality influenced by inner conflict between competing needs
Learning Model Abnormality result of reinforecement in behavior considered abnormal to avoid "punishment" from environment
Humanistic Model Abnormality result of programming to move toward self-actualization (resolution).
Mismatch of behavior imposed by society and who individual actually is Humanistic Model
Existential Model Abnormality result of unresolved conflicts or inability to accept certain aspects of reality
Interpersonal Model Abnormality result of interaction between individual & S.O.
Community Model Abnormality influenced by aspects of socity like discrimination, poverty, lack of social support
DSM Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5 sections)
Axis I Disorders grouped by symptoms
Axis II Disorders categorized
Axis III Physical/Medical contributing factors
Axis IV Environmental contributing stressors
Axis V Overall quality of social & occupational functioning
Psychodynamic's abnormal behavior Individual's attempts to meet needs and avoid punishment
Psychopathological models with greatest impact Biological, psychodynamic & learning
DSM does NOT Provide concrete definitions of what constitutes abnormality
How are Axis I and III disorders related Axis III disorders contribute to presence of Axis I disororders
Acute schizophrenia A form of schizophrenia characterized by positive symptoms, motor manifestations, relatively minor thought disturbances, and a positive response to neuroleptic medication.
Agoraphobia A fear of being in any situation that might provoke a panic attack or from which escape might be difficult if a panic attack occurred.
Person avoids leaving home due to fear of getting a panic attack & not being able to escape Agoraphobia
Amnesia A loss of memory for events, which may even involve loss of memory of one’s identity.
Antisocial personality disorder A personality disorder manifested by a pattern of irresponsible and harmful behavior as indicated by academic failure, poor job performance, illegal activities, recklessness, and impulsive behavior.
One personality disorder receiving lots of study Antisocial personality disorder
Anxiety disorders Psychological disorders that involve excessive fear, worry, and physiological reactivity.
Sympathetic Nervous System activated despite absence of real danger Anxiety disorders
3 basic anxiety disorders GAD Panic disorders Phobias
Avoidant personality disorder A personality disorder in which affected individuals desire close relationships with others but avoid them out of fear of rejection.
Biofeedback The process of monitoring physical states such as blood pressure or muscle tension with a machine and providing people with immediate feedback so that they may control muscle tension.
Bipolar disorder A mood disorder characterized by extreme or rapid fluctuations between depression and mania.
Borderline personality disorder Unstable mood, self-image, unstable intense inerpersonal relationhips Display extremes of overidealization & devaluation Marked shift to extreme mood, anxiety or impulsiveness
One personality disorder receiving lots of study Borderline personality disorder
Chronic schizophrenia A form of schizophrenia characterized by negative symptoms, conspicuous thought disturbances, evidence of cerebral atrophy, and generally poor response to neuroleptics.
Conversion disorder Another name for psychogenic pain disorder.
Hysteria Conversion / Psychogenic pain disorder
Delusional disorder A psychological disorder that involves the presence of a persistent delusion or misbelief about an aspect of one’s existence or reality.
Delusions Bizarre and often unsettling beliefs that are implausible.
Dependent personality disorder A personality disorder in which affected individuals desire close relationships with others but tend to use those relationships for consistent reassurance and to avoid the risk of attempting things on their own.
Dissociative disorders Psychological disorders that involve disruptions in memory, consciousness, or identity.
Amnesia / Fugue State Dissociative disorders
Dissociative identity disorder A dissociative disorder characterized by the coexistence of two or more identities within the same person; formerly called multiple personality disorder.
Dysthymia A low-level chronic depression greater than two years in duration.
Factitious disorder A disorder that involves the intentional production of symptoms or complaints with the intended purpose of assuming a patient role.
Fugue State Rare state in which an individual takes a new identity without realizing he or she is amnestic.
General adapation syndrome A model that examines the ways in which an animal’s natural, physical response to a stressor can become problematic under the influence of prolonged stress.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Involves excessive anxiety and worry about a number of events for a period of at least six months, resulting in symptoms including restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, or sleep disturbance.
Seyle General adaption syndrome
Hallucinations Sensations and perceptions with no realistic cause.
Health psychology Branch of psychology concerned with the relationship between physical disease and psychological stress.
Lack of social support leads to coronary heart disease Health psychology
Histrionic personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by excessive attention seeking and often sexually seductive behavior.
Hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder that involves a preoccupation with having serious illnesses, despite the lack of medical evidence.
Hypomania A “mild” form of mania that does not cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Bipolar II disorder Hypomania
Major depression A mood disorder characterized by long-lasting emotions of sadness, irritability, emptiness, apathy, self-hate, and guilt that affect an individual’s entire body.
Appr 15% population will suffer of this during their lifetime Major depression
"Whole body" disorder Major depression
Hopelessness Increased susceptibility to pathogens, increased cancer & death and impaired immuno competence
Malingering Intentional production of symptoms, or lying about symptoms, in order to receive an environmental reinforcer.
Manic episode Period of elevated or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week as well as excessive involvement in activities despite potentially neagive consequences
Mood disorders Psychological disorders that are characterized by episodes of depression or mania.
Narcisistic personality disorder A personality disorder in which affected individuals expect exemptions from typical social or work rules and regulations and often manipulate and take advantage of others.
Negative symptoms Symptoms of schizophrenia that are marked by a lack of significant activity; examples include anhedonia, apathy, flat affect, and social isolation.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Person experiences obsessions, or recurrent and intrusive thoughts or images that he or she cannot control, and attempts to eliminate the anxiety associated with them by carrying out repetitive, intentional behaviors called compulsions.
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder A personality disorder in which affected individuals are perfectionists.
Panic attack An anxiety disorder in which brief episodes of intense fear are accompanied by multiple physical symptoms that occur repeatedly and unexpectedly in the absence of any external threat.
Panic disorder A specific instance of unexpected, intense fear or anxiety, including shortness of breath, increased heart rate, dizziness, perspiration, choking sensations, trembling, or other bodily sensations, as well as a fear of dying or “going crazy.”
Peaks in 10 - 15 minutes Panic disorder
Paranoid personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by consistent and stable patterns of suspicion of others, despite an apparent lack of psychotic paranoid processes.
More characteristic of some Axis I disorders Paranoid personality disorder
Personality disorders Disorders characterized by stable, deviant, inflexible patterns of social behavior and intrapsychic experiences.
Become stable over time & situations Personality disorders
Positive symptoms Symptoms of schizophrenia that involve increased activity; examples include hallucinations, delusions, excitement, and disorganized speech.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Develops after exposure to a life-threatening trauma or some other trauma-inducing experience; the affected individual reexperiences the trauma through flashbacks or dreams and experiences intense distress when exposed to similar situations.
Psychogenic pain disorder A somatoform disorder marked by a loss of physical functioning without an identifiable physical cause.
Psychosomatic illness A largely discarded term for illnesses or physical conditions that have psychological factors as part of their cause.
Schizoid personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by distant interpersonal behavior and an apparent lack of interest in relationships with others.
Schizophrenia Severe psychological disorder characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and deterioration in one’s general level of functioning.
Social phobia A fear of being painfully embarrassed in a social setting.
Somatoform disorder A disorder in which a person experiences pain or other physical symptoms as a result of a psychological cause.
Schizotypal personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by magical beliefs; affected individuals often appear odd to others.
Specific phobia A fear of being painfully embarrassed in a social setting.
Type A Individuals Highly strung individuals who focus on deadlines, competition, and achievement.
Type B Individuals Individuals who are more relaxed and tranquil.
Paranoid Delusions or hallucinations predominate
Disorganized Speech & behavior problems predominate
Catatonic Extreme negativism, mutism, peculiarities of voluntary movement or sterotyped movements predominate
Undifferentiated No single clinical presentation predominates
Residual Prominent psychotic symptoms no longer predominate
Assessment The process of investigating aspects of an individual’s situation systematically to generate hypotheses regarding the problems involved, their causes and effects, and potential solutions.
Diagnosis The process of using the information collected during an initial assessment and determining how the patient’s problems fit into a general classification scheme.
Global therapies Approaches to treatment that view any single problem in the context of a larger system, whether the system is the client’s personality, interpersonal relations, or society.
Mental status examination A brief interview screening a patient’s degree of orientation to place, person, and the time and purpose of meeting.
Specific therapies Approaches to treatment in which a particular problem or symptom is chosen as the focus, and specific techniques are employed to alleviate the problem.
Structured interviews Interviews that ensure that certain pieces of information are gained from each patient by using a process in which the same questions are asked in the same manner and same order to each patient.
Unstructured interviews Interviews that involve learning through discussing an individual’s history, as well as his or her social, educational, medical, and psychological status.
Focus more generally on understanding & adjusting the larger picture Global therapies
Using the DSM or the ICD for coding Diagnosis
Attention & concentration, memory and thought processes Mental status examination
Specific problem result of some fundamental problem in the system Specific therapies
Cenceptualization of problems then looking for means of addressing them Unstructured interviews
Treatments can include Psychotherapy, Rx, education, methods like biofeedback
Objective tests Standardized & uniform with well-delineated scoring rating personality or psychological problems
Projective tests Having pt explain, describe or respond to presented stimuli
Behavioral observation By clinician in office, or in environment with S.O.'s and daily logs
Anticonvulsants A group of medications that have historically been used to treat seizure disorders but are now also used to treat bipolar disorders.
Mood Stabilizers Another term for anticonvulsants
Depakote, Lamictal, Neurontin Anticonvulsants/Mood Stabilizers - bipolar
Antidepressants Medications used to treat depression; the three primary categories of these drugs are tricyclics, MAO inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Antipsychotic meds working in 2-4 weeks Antidepressants
Antipsychotic meds also helpfull with anxiety & panic disorders Antidepressants
Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil SSRI - antidepressants
Cognitive therapy A method that focuses on changing a person’s thoughts to reduce his or her problematic symptoms of depression or anxiety.
Time limited & concrete goal oriented therapy Cognitive
Automatic thoughts Beck - Cognitive therapy identifying beliefs & emotions resulting for reflex thoughts occuring throughout day
Couples therapy A type of group therapy in which the client is a couple, and the primary goal is to help the couple learn how to solve their problems together.
Group therapy Helps work on relationships with others, develop social skills, helping others & seeing how own behavior affects others
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) A treatment for severe depression administered by passing a strong current of electricity through one hemisphere of the brain which is 80-90% effetive w/ repeated sessions
Memory loss Common with ECT
Empathy The ability to see the world through another person’s eyes.
Humanistic tools for psychotherapy Empathy, Genuiness, Warmth
Family therapy A kind of group therapy that attempts to change the system of interactions between family members.
Patient's behavior result of being forced upon or as a scapegoat of more powerful family member revealed Family therapy
Flooding A therapeutic procedure that continually exposes an individual to his or her most feared object or situation until the fear is resolved by learning fear is bearable and does not predict traumatic event
Operant condition therapies Flooding, Modeling and Systemic desensitization
Free association A Freudian technique of probing the unconscious in which individuals are instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring their thoughts.
Individuals not only censor throughts from others, but also from self-recognition Free association
Genuineness The ability to openly express oneself and share oneself with another person.
High-potency benzodiazepines The most common drugs used to treat anxiety; these medications act as minor tranquilizers.
Meds which take effect quickly, easily become dependnt too and have severe withdrawl symptomes High-potency benzodiazepines
Alprazolam, Clonazepam, Lorazepam High-potency benzodiazepines
Lithium A form of salt that is considered to be the primary treatment for bipolar disorder which is 80% effective when taken
Needs to be monitored closely for CNS or CV dysfunction Lithium
Lobotomy A brain operation formerly used to treat severe chronic schizophrenia.
Therapy done as OP in doctor's offices into 1950's Lobotomy
Problems are learned Behavioral & Cognitive view
Problems result of "stunted growth" in spirit or personality Humanistic view
Problems caused by unconscious factors Psychoanalytic & Psychodynamic view
Effective therapy for phobias Systemic desensitization
Modeling A procedure used to treat phobias in which an individual watches a model expose himself or herself to the feared stimulus; gradually, the individual becomes involved with the model and interacts with the feared object.
Neuroleptics A class of drugs with powerful tranquilizing effects that are often used to treat psychotic disorders.
Dopamine affected Neuroleptics
Thorazine, Haldol, Zyprexa, Seroqual Neuroleptics
Antipsychotic drug effective as long as taking Neuroleptics
Lethargy, Tremors, Fogginess, Blunted affect, Numbness Neuroleptics
Psychodynamic therapies Therapies that focus largely on the social relations the patient has: those in the past with parents and others, those in the present with significant others, and the relationship that develops between the patient and the therapist.
Therapy focusing on therapist focussing on changing how client relates with others through relationship with client Psychodynamic therapy
Rational-emotive therapy Ellis A cognitive approach to therapy in which the therapist approaches the client in a directive manner to identify irrational beliefs, refute them, and give responsibility to the patient to extinguish those beliefs.
Systemic desensitization Method of treatment that pairs deep muscle relaxation with increasingly frightening situations; through an examination of his or her fear hierarchy, the client is eventually relieved of his or her fear of a certain stimulus.
Transference The unconscious act of transferring the feelings one has for an important person in one’s life to someone else.
Allowing client to transfer conflicts/unresolved issued to therapist Transference
Warmth The ability to be emotionally close to another person and offer him or her hope and caring.
Early anti-psychotic meds Parkinson-like symptoms & tardive dyskinesia
Ellis Rational-emotive therapy
Most common treatment for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Neuroleptics
Part of an unstructured interview Mental status examination
Finding out patient's dates of institutionalization, family hx of mental hisoty is Structured interview
Aggression Physical or verbal behavior performed to injure or destroy another person, animal, or object.
Influenced by genetics, neural system and biochemicals Aggression
Altruism Caring for others without intent of self-gain.
Attitudes Convictions and opinions that affect our response to things, people, situations, and events.
Influence behavior when outside influences minimized Attitudes
Attribution theory A theory proposing that people explain the behavior of one another by examining a person’s dispositions (internal causes) and situations (external causes).
Disposition Internal cause
Situation External cause
Bystander effect A term used to describe the fact that people are much less likely to help someone in trouble if there are other bystanders who also do not help
Cognitive dissonance theory A theory suggesting that if our thoughts and actions are at odds with one another, the discomfort of this discrepancy will influence us to change our attitudes or thoughts to align them with the behavior that we have exhibited.
Conformity An individual’s adjustment of behavior in order to align with the norms of a group.
Deindividuation The phenomenon in which a person acts without restraint or self-consciousness when he or she feels anonymous within a group setting
Law abiding behavioral changes during riots and times of war Deindividuation
Fundamental attribution error The error that occurs when we analyze someone’s behavior and underestimate the influence of external factors (situations) and overestimate the influence of internal factors (dispositions)when making judgments
Groupthink The thinking that transpires when a group desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a focus on considering all options and arriving at a balanced decision.
Steps to avoid groupthink Minority opinion consistent, unwavering & more successful. Bringing in outside impartial experts. Splitting into subgroups to discuss issues & come to conclusions. Leaders avoid taking stance early in discussions.
5 stages group development 1) Forming 2) Storming - intragoup conflict for control 3) Norming - cohesiveness & close relationships with common expectations 4) Performing - fully functioning 5) Adjourning - preparing to disband as objectives met
Norms The standards of appropriate and inappropriate behaviors within a group.
Obedience The act of following the direction of authority.
Reference groups Groups that allow people to define themselves as members and consequently feel that the group is significant
Role expectation The perception that others hold about how one should behave in a situation.
Role perception An individual’s belief of how he or she is supposed to act in a certain situation.
Scripts Guides for socially appropriate behavior that people develop based on societal norms
Social exchange theory A theory proposing that if an individual perceives that the rewards for helping will outweigh the costs, then that person will become willing to help
Social loafing A term used to describe how people will do less work as the size of the group performing a task increases
Social psychology Branch of psychology that involves the study of social relations between people, whether in dyads (two-person groups) or larger group
Social thinking, influence & relations Social psychology
Superordinate goal A goal that is important to two groups and requires them to work together
Affiliation The tendency to seek out other humans which helps decrease anxiety of being alone
Attraction The simple concept that people are drawn to each other by proximity, physical attracton, reciprocity, similarity
Bicultural identity An identity linked to both a subculture and the larger culture
Collectivism The definition of one’s identity based on a group’s identity, which awards priority to group goals - Interdepedency (Eastern culture)
Compassionate love The rich connection that develops in a love relationship over time
Culture A group of ideas, behaviors, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed on from one generation to the next
Ethnicity A part of an individual’s social identity that is made up of shared ancestral and cultural heritages
Self-awareness forced from being different from surroundings Ethnicity
Friendship A relationship that builds upon liking with the added component of a mutual perception of similarity
Gender The set of characteristics by which individuals are identified as either male or female
Gender identity A person’s sense of which gender he or she belongs to, which sometimes does not correspond to the person’s observable biological characteristics
Gender roles The expected behaviors of males and female
Over lifespan, women become more dominate and men become less so Gender roles
Individualism The definition of one’s identity based on personal attributes, which awards priority to personal goals - Independence (Western culture)
Liking The phenomenon in which two or more individuals have positive attitudes toward each other
Passionate love A deep, intense, aroused state of love, usually present in the beginning of a love relationship
Prejudice Unjustifiable and often negative attitudes toward different racial, cultural, or gender groups that lead people to discriminate against others
Scapegoating Focusing blame or hostility on one person leading to prejudice
Most affected measure of central tendency by outliers Mean
Focus of psychological science in attempt to relate overt responses to observable enviornmental stinuli Behavioral approach
"Response latency is number of seconds that elapse between stimulus & response" is an example of Operational definition
Releast of neurotransmitter information into synaptic cleft caused by Action potential
Neuron is polarized when in a Resting state
Sendory deprivation in adults cause Hallucinations and impaired effiency in all areas of intellectual functioning
Rods more dense in Periphery of retina
Brain waves in REM sleep Rapid low amplitude waves
Cencking coin return ever vending machine passed is behavior being maintained via Variable ratio schedule
Teacher tells student to sit in class and over next several days student stands more & more thus being told repeatedly to sit is an example of Reinforcement
Recall performace on typical forgetting curve Ebbinghaus Decreases rapidly at first then levels off
How is information processed Sensory, Perception, Learning, Thinking, Short-term memory then Long-term memory
In an inverted U shaped functional model, which levels will lead to poorest performance Low & high levels
Longitudinal research is perferred since subjects Utilized as own experimental controls
When someone accepts another's values & imitates their behavior Identifying
Angered, firt impulse is to strike at person but insteads yells & kicks door Displacement
Projective tests Psychoanalysis
Pessimistic & moody person classified by Eysenck Unstable & introverted
Eysenck's personality dimension NEP: Neurotic/Unstable vs Stable Extroverted vs Introverted Psychotic vs Normal
Key distinction between personality trait & attitude Durability
Obsession Unwanted thought
Similarity, proximity and familiarity Attraction
Diffusion of responsibility Bystander effect
Levels of compassion per Sternberg Intimacy, passion, commitment
Job satisfaction has inverse relationship with Turnover
Focusing on individual's ability or personality characteristics Dispositional
Best diagnostic tool used when studying focal brain activity PET
Temperment Chess & Thomas: easy, difficult, slow to warm up
Mouse not given reward while learning until "final" day then presented and mouse "catches" up to another which has been rewarded each trial Latent learning
Humanistic approach emphasizes Free will
Learning association "dog" with certain four-legged furry animals, child will frequently misidentify other 4 legged animals Negative transfer
Hostility Most closely correlated with heart disease
Personality disorders characterized by Problematic social relationships & inflexible and maladaptive responses to stress
Attempts to correct irrational beliefs that lead to psychological distress Cognitive therapy
Case Studies Detailed investigation of single subject/topic from which findings generalized
Correlation Studies Show how 2 pheonomena/situations correspond to onte another
Study that does NOT prove causation Correlation
Cross Validation Checking data against other' findings to reduce possible bias
Meta Analysis Complining results of numerous studies on particular phenomena & analyze data
Perceptual Constancy Seeing object as unchanging even with light/retinal sensation changes
Contract Perception Ability to differentiate something from surrounding stimuli
Assimilation Taking "new experience" and incorporating into existing concept/idea
Accomodation Expanding on'e schemas (concepts from past experience) when no longer adequate
"q" factor General intelligence exists in people and may vary across individuals of same level.
Cannon-Bard Theory Physiological & emotional reactions to stimuli occur simultaneousl
James-Lang Theory Experience emotions after physiological change noted
Emotions Physical arousal & cognitive label
Components of emotions Physiological, behavior, conscious experience
More children view TV violence, more display aggressive behavior Positive Correlation
Withdrawl from can be fatal if not monitored Acohol
Child avoids homeworks & parent reminds them until done then stops Negative Reinforcement
Aptitute Test Predict ability to learn new skill/material
Period in cycle men cannot have orgasm Refractory
Returning wallet found with money also SuperEgo
Pt interacts with staff like does with mother Transference
Depressed patient can see significant results from meds 3-6 wks
Industrial Psychologist studying group decision making i boardroom Applied Research
To a dog, a bone is Primary Enforcer
Series of dates to remember on immediate recall Serial position effect
Making judgements by how well match to familiar situations Representative heurestic
Kohlber's stage one's decisions justified by internal standards Postconventional
Germinal stage starts from Single cell
According to Erikson, main adolescent psychosocial task Forming identity
Freud's stage where ego & cognitive abilities form Latent
Longitudinal studing degree of extraversion in people from several countries Trait Theory
Negative symptom of schitzophrenia Social isolation
Example of dissociative disorder Amnesia
ECT effective for Depression
Group of prejudiced students discuss racial issues Become more prejudiced
Created by: flanurse
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