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Child Psych Midterm

Child Psychology Midterm: CCM Online Summer 2011

QuestionAnswer
Ted Kaczyniski and Alice Walker Kaczynski: socially maladjust, very intelligent child and adult; became the unabomber Walker: grew up poor in Mississippi, at 8 her brother shot her in the eye with a BB gun, left her blind; grew up to write Pulitzer prize winning The Color Purple
Culture Encompasses the behavior patterns, beliefs and all other products of a specific group of people that are passed on from generation to generation. Results from interaction of people over many years, influences behavior of its members
Original Sin Advocated during the Middle Ages, children perceived as being born into the world as evil beings. Goal of child rearing was to provide salvation and remove sin from child's life
Innate Goodness Promoted by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, children are inherently good. Children should be permitted to grow naturally with little parental monitoring or constraint
Western View of Childhood Eventful & unique period of life, foundation for the adult years. Distinct periods in which children master specific skills and tasks, value childhood as special time of growth and change, invest resources in caring for and educating children.
Socioemotional Development changes in individual relationships with other people, changes in emotion and changes in personality
Nature/Nurture Whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture
Nature Organisms biological inheritance, Proponents: range of environments can be vast but evolutionary and genetic foundations produce commonalities in growth and development
Nurture organisms environmental experience. Proponents: experiences in individuals biological and social environment can vary leading to development of different skills, ways of thinking and relations
Jim and Jim Twins Part of Minnesota Twin Reared Apart Study, separated at 4 weeks and reunited at 39 years, had incredibly similar characteristics
Gene Units of hereditary information composed of DNA, direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the proteins that maintain life. 20,500 genes in humans each with its own location
Down's Syndrome Characteristics Individual with round face, flattened skull, extra fold of skin over eyelids, protruding tongue, short limbs and retardation of motor and mental abilities
Down's Syndrome Cause/Occurrence Presence of extra copy of chromosome 21, may have to do with health of male sperm or female ovum. Approximately 1/700 live births, women 16-34 are less likely to have child with it, African American women rarely have child with it.
Infertility Inability to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse without contraception, occurs in 10-15% of couples in US
Infertility causes in women not ovulating (releasing eggs to be fertilized), may not produce normal ova, fallopian tubes may be blocked, disease that prevents implantation of the embryo into the uterus
Infertility causes in men produce to few sperm, sperm may lack mobility, have blocked passageway
Infertility: Help 2 million couples seek help each year, 40000 try assisted reproduction (most commonly in vitro): can result in multiple births/low birth weight
Adoption social and legal process by which a parent-child relationship is established between persons unrelated at birth
Adoption: Complications/Problems The later adoption occurred the more likely child had adjustment difficulties (over 10 years having most problems); more likely have psychological and school related problems:learning disabilities, behavioral problems, experiment with illicit drugs
The Nurture Assumption Judith Harris (1998) argued that what parents do does not make a difference in their children's and adolescents' behavior; argues that genes and peers are far more important than parents in development
The Story of Mr. Littles Diana (Mom), Rodger (Dad) had miscarriage second pregnancy alled baby “Mr Little”. During birth Diana's heart rate dropped gave her drug to raise heart rate also raised “Mr Littles” due to this he had to spend several days in the ICU before going home
Fetal Period Prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and last for seven months, on average
Fetal Period: 3 months 3 inches long, weighs 3 ounces; face, forehead, eyelids, nose, arms and legs are distinguishable
Fetal Period: 4 months 6 inches long, weighs 4-7 ounces; growth spurt in legs, mother can feel arms and legs move
Fetal Period: 5 months 12 inches long, weighs about about a pound; structures of skin have formed; fetus is more active
Fetal Period: 6 months fetus is viable outside of womb
Fetal Period: 7 months 16 inches long, weighs 3 pounds
Fetal Period: 8&9 months fatty tissue develops; functioning of various organ systems: heart and kidneys develop, fetus grows longer and gains weight (approx 4 more pounds)
Zygote A single cell formed through fertilization
Fetus Developing person after the embryonic stage and before birth
Thalidomide Drug taken for morning sickness in the 1960s, created severe birth defects in children including missing/malformed limbs
Psychoactive Drugs Drugs that act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify and change their moods and typically negatively effect fetus
Caffeine: Effect on Fetus increase risk for spontaneous abortion and low birth rate for women consuming more than 150mg of caffeine/day. More than 200mg/day increases risk for miscarriage
Alcohol: Effect on Fetus Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): Abnormalities and problems that appear in offspring of mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy. Body malformations, learning problems, below average intelligence, impaired memory development.
Nicotine: Effect on Fetus Can adversely influence prenatal development, birth and postnatal development; can lead to: preterm birth, low birth weight, fetal and neonatal death, respiratory problems, SIDS, ADD/ADHD, withdraw in newborns,intrauterine growth retardation
Cocaine: Effect on Fetus Reduce birth weight, length and head circumference, lower arousal, less effective self-regulation, higher excitability, lower quality of reflexes, impaired motor development, attention deficits, learning disabilities at 7 and slower growth rate at 10.
Methamphetamine: Effect on Fetus High infant mortality rate, low birth weight, developmental and behavioral problems. Linked to decreased arousal, increased stress and poor movement quality in newborns. 5% of US women use meth during pregnancy
Marijuana: Effect on Fetus Deficit in memory and information processing, lower intelligence in children
Heroin: Effect on Fetus withdrawal symptoms after birth: night tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed sleep, impaired motor control. Behavioral problems, attention deficits. Continuous methadone treatment during pregnancy linked to improved fetal outcomes.
Stress Intense fears, anxieties and or emotions or negative moods may create psychological changes that may effect fetus. Elevated cortisol: premature delivery. Maternal depression linked to fetal death or miscarriage
Age of Parents: Adolescents Mortality rates of infants born to adolescents is double normal. Immaturity of mothers reproductive systems, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal care and low socioeconomic status. Least likely of all women to obtain prenatal assistance
Age of Parents: Advanced Maternal Age 35 years or older, greater risk of fetus developing down syndrome, increase for low birth rate, preterm delivery and fetal death (increases progressively for women 35-44 years of age)
Tanner Roberts' Birth Mother had normal birth process at St Joseph's Medical Center in Burbank California with Demerol as pain reliever. Mother (Cindy) experienced Braxton Hicks spasms before labor began.
Birth Process: First Stage Uterine contractions 15-20 minutes apart, lasting up to a minute. Cervix stretches and opens. End of first stage: dilate cervix to 4 inches, contractions 2-5 minutes apart. Average time 12-14 hours
Birth Process: Second Stage Baby's head starts to move through cervix into birth canal. Terminates when baby completely emerges from mother, with each contraction (1 every minute for 1 minute) mother pushes baby out of body. Average time 45 min to an hour
Birth Process: Third Stage Afterbirth: time the placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled. Shortest of three stages, lasting only minutes
Doula A caregiver who provide continuous physical, emotional and educational support to the mother before, during and after birth
Medications for Childbirth: Analgesics used to relieve pain, include tranquilizers, barbiturates and narcotics (such as Demerol)
Medications for Childbirth: Anesthesia used in late first stage labor and during expulsion of baby to block sensation in an areas of the body or to block consciousness, tend towards not using general bc it can be transmitted to fetus
Medications for Childbirth:Oxytocin Synthetic hormone used to stimulate contractions; pitocin most widely used form. Use is debated: newborns had lower birth ratings
Cesarean Section Baby is removed from the mothers uterus through an incision made in her abdomen. Used when baby is breech, lying crosswise or there is maternal vaginal bleeding
Measurement of Neonatal Health: Apgar Scale used to assess health of newborn at 1-5 minutes after birth. Evaluates heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, body color and reflex irritability (score of 0-2 in each category)
Measurement of Neonatal Health: Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) Performed 24-36 hours after birth, used as a sensitive index of neurological competence up to 1 month. Assesses neurological development, reflexes and reaction to people and objects, tests 16 factors. Can indicate brain damage or stress to brain.
Measurement of Neonatal Health: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) provides comprehensive analysis of newborns behavior, neurological and stress responses and regulatory capacities. Developed to assess “high-risk” infants, useful for evaling preterm and substance-exposed infants
Bonding Formation of a connection, especially a physical bond between parents and the newborn in the period shortly after birth
Postpartum Depression Major depressive episode usually occurring about 4 weeks after delivery. Strong feelings of sadness, anxiety, or despair for at least 2-week period that they have trouble coping with daily tasks.
Epidural Block regional anesthetic that numbs womens body from waist down (under criticism bc its associated with fever, extended labor and increased risk for c section)
Stories of Latonya and Ramona Latoyna: born in Ghana, bottle fed with unclean bottles made with dirty water, died before first birthday. Ramona: born in Nigeria in “baby-friendly” program, breastfed, baby is healthy at 1 year of age
Cerebral Cortex Covers the fore-brain like wrinkled cap, four main loves: Frontal, Occipital, Temporal, Parietal
Frontal Lobe involved in involuntary movement, thinking, personality, memory, emotion, sustained attention, and intentionality or purpose
Occipital Lobe Vision
Temporal Lobe active role in hearing, language processing and memory
Parietal Lobe Registering spacial location, attention and motor control
Lateralization specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or another
SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: condition that occurs when infants stop breathing, usually during the night, and die suddenly without an apparent cause. Highest cause of infant death in US w/ 30000 deaths annually (highest risk between 2 and 4 months)
SIDS: Risk Factors & Percentage Increase Low birth weight (5-10% ), siblings who have died of SIDS (2-4x), sleep apnea, African American and Eskimo (4-6x), lower socioeconomic group, passive exposure to cigarette smoke, sleeps in soft bedding, abnormal brain stem functioning
Accident Prevention major cause of death in infancy, types: aspiration of foreign objects, suffocation, falls, poisoning, burns and MVA
Reflexes Built in reaction to stimuli, govern the newborn's movements, which are automatic and beyond the newborns control. Allow infants to respond adaptively to their environment
Rooting Reflex Occurs when infant cheek is stroked or side of mouth is touched, respond by turning head towards side that was touched
Sucking Reflex Automatically sucks an object placed in its mouths, enables newborn to get nourishment before thy have associated a nipple with food and serves as self-soothing/self-regulating mechanism
Moro Effect Response to sudden, intense noise or movement, newborn arches back, throws head and flings out arms and legs then rapidly closes them, disappears at 3-4 months of age
Babinski Reflex Fan out their toes and twist their foot inward when sole of foot is stroked, disappears between 9 and 12 months
Grasping Reflex Something touches infants palm, infant responds by grasping tightly, develops into voluntary grasping and fine motor skills
Gross Motor Skills skills that involve large muscle activities, moving arms and walking
Fine Motor Skills Finely tuned moments, palmar grasp: initial grasp where infants use whole hand, pincer grasp: toward end of first year, infants grasp objects with their thumb and forefinger
Depth Perception Visual cliff experiment: baby refused to crawl across glass it perceived as a cliff, researches do not know exactly when infants can perceive depth but can use binocular clues by 3-4 months
Senses Hearing: begins in last 2 months of pregnancy, Touch/Pain: respond immediately after birth, Smell: by 6 days after birth, Taste: may be present before birth
Intermodal Perception The ability to relate and integrate information from two or more sensory modalities such as vision and hearing
Stories of Laurent, Lucienne and Jacqueline Piagets study of his 3 children
Piaget's Six Substages of Sensorimotor Development First habits and primary circular reactions, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, coordination of secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions/novelty and curiosity, internalization of schemes
First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions Develops between 1 and 4 months, infants coordinates sensation and two types of schemes: habits (scheme based reflex that has become completely separated form it eliciting stimulation) and circular reaction (repetitive action)
Primary Circular Reactions Scheme based on the attempt to reproduce an event that initially occurred by chance, infants own body remains center of attention, no outward pull by environmental events
Secondary Circular Reactions Develops btwn 4 and 8 months, infant becomes object-oriented, go beyond preoccupation with self. Infants schemes not intentional/goal directed but repeated for their consequences. Secondary circular reactions: actions repeated for sake of its consequences
Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions Develops between 8 and 12 months, actions become more outwardly directed, infants coordinate schemes and act intentionally. Second Achievement: presence of intentionality
Tertiary Circular Reactions, Novelty and Curiosity Develops between 12 and 18 months, infants become intrigued by properties of objects and things they can make happen to objects, continually doing new things to them and exploring results. Marks starting point for human curiosity and interest in novelty
Internalization of Schemes Develops between 12 and 18 months, infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols, permit infant to think about concrete events without directly acting them out or perceiving them
Habituation Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentation of the stimulus
Cognitive Development creation of schemes (actions or mental representation that organize knowledge), behavioral schemes (physical activities) characterize infancy and mental schemes (cognitive activities) develop in childhood
Classical Conditioning as a result of a pairing, a new stimulus comes to elicit a response previously given to another stimulus
Operant Conditioning consequences of paired behavior produce changes in the probability of the behaviors occurrence
Malnutrition can restrict an infants cognitive development, chronically malnourished children preform poorly on test of attention and memory
Poverty Many low-income parents have difficulty providing an intellectually stimulating environment for their children. Early intervention programs can influence child’s outcome
Facilitating Language: Biological Broca's area: left frontal lobe, producing words. Wernicke's area: left hemisphere, language comprehension. Damage to these regions produces aphasia, LAD
Language Acquisition Device a biological endowment children are born with that enables the child to detect certain features and rules of language
Facilitating Language: Environmental Caregivers can encourage language by smiling and touching baby when they coo. Recasting: rephrasing something child has said in form of question or sentence, Expanding: restating, in sophisticated form, what child said, Labeling: iding names of objects
Story of Darius' Fathering Darius, 17-month old boy, primarily raise by stay at home father, bond between baby and his parents is strong
Emotion feelings, or affects that occur when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being. Designate emotions as either positive or negative
Temperament Individual's behavior style and characteristic way of emotionally responding
Stranger Anxiety Infants show fear of stranger. Emerges at 6 months, peaks at 1 year, decrease after. Show less anxiety when in familiar setting, stranger is a child or adult is friendly and outgoing
Goodness of Fit Refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope
Trust Vs Mistrust Erik Erikson (1968): first year of life: trust vs mistrust stage of development, infants learn trust when they are cared for in a consistent manner. Not done in first year, arises again at each stage, a pathway that can have positive or negative outcomes
Caregiving styles: positive securely attached babies have caregivers who are sensitive to their signals and constantly respond to babies needs
Caregiving styles: negative Caregivers of avoidant babies tend to be unavailable or rejecting, don’t respond to babies signals and have little physical contact with them. Tend to be inconsistent, not very affectionate, may neglect or physically abuse infant
Maternal Caregiving center on child care activities: feeding, changing diapers, bathing
Fathers Caregiving play, especially rough and tumble play: bounce infants, throw them up in the air, more involved when they work less, are younger and children are boys
The Family constellation of subsystems: complex whole made up of interrelated, interacting parts-defined in terms of generation, gender and role
The Story of Teresa Amabile and Her Art she was excited about art when it was a free activity to peruse, however when it became an academic subject it was no longer enjoyable
Sleep Problems more than 40 percent of children experience sleep problems, short sleep duration linked to being overweight
Smedje, Broman & Hetta Study (2001) that found a link between childrens behavioral problems and sleep problems: hyperactive during the day would toss and turn at night, conduct problems more likely to resist sleep, peer problems had night terrors
Nightmares frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper, more often toward the morning than just after the child has gone to bed. Children who experience nightmares experience higher levels of anxiety
Night Terrors characterized by sudden arousal from sleep, intense fear, and reaction such as rapid heart rate and breathing, loud screams, heavy perspiration and physical movement. Little memory of terror, less common than nightmares and typically outgrown
Somnambulism sleepwalking, occurs in deepest stages of sleep, 15% of children do it once, 1-5% do it regularly
Nutrition feeding and eating habits effect childrens skeletal growth, body shape and susceptibility to disease, 45% of childrens meals exceed recommendations for saturated and trans fat, they are eating to much sugar
Overweight Young Children risk for overweight children of continuing to be overweight, low-income young Latino children were twice as likely to be obese as while and black kids, overweight girls have lower self-esteem
Physical Activities 3: simple movements for sake of enjoyment: hopping, jumping, running: highest activity level in lifespan / 4: more adventurous, walk up/down stairs with ease / 5: run hard, enjoy races / Preschool: mainly sedentary even when playing outside
Health, Safety and Illness/Prevention of Childhood Injuries MVA: leading cause of death in infants, followed by cardiovascular diseases. Other causes: drowning, falls, burns and poising. Prevention: restrain in automobiles, reduce access to firearms, make homes/playgrounds safer
Created by: kallenpoole