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Learning Disabilities Assignment from articles

Is learning to read a fairly easy and natural thing to do? No, it does not develop incidentally. The act of reading is a very complex process.
What complex actions of the body are required and involved during the act of reading? The complex actions involve the eyes, the brain, and the psychology of the mind(motivation, interest, past experience)that do not occur naturally.
What 2 processes are essential to teaching beginning reading to children? 1. Phonological Awareness 2. Word Recognition
What has research made clear that happens to students who fall behind in reading? Opportunities to advance or catch up diminish over time.
What is phonological awareness? The ability to manipulate the sounds in words. Students DO NOT see any written words or letters. They ONLY listen and respond entirely on the basis of what they HEAR!!
When completing phonological awareness activities do students see any written words or letters? NO
When completing phonological awareness activites to student listen and respond entirely on the basis of what they hear? YES
What are phonemes? sounds
True/False - Beginning reading is the solid foundation on which almost all subsquent learning takes place. TRUE
Children who are ready to begin reading words have developed prerquiste skills and understand what 3 things? 1. words can be spoken or written 2. print corresponds to speech 3. words are composed of phonemes(sounds)
Reading comprehension and other higher-order reading activities depend on strong _____ ___________ skills. word recognition
A beginning reader with successful phonological awareness skills is ready for what kind of activity next? Word recognition activities
Why might children have difficulties completing or performing phonological awareness activities? 1. they may not be able to process the sounds or phonemes that make-up a word 2. some children can NOT hear the different sounds/phonemes within a word
Why are phonemes easily distorted? Phonemes are easily distorted because the boundaries for determining where one sound ends and the other begins are not entirely clear to the ear and brain.
True/False - When teaching beginning reading concepts make sure to model the concepts of sounds, blending, and segmenting to students and model repeatedly for students. TRUE
On the National Assessment of Educational Process(NAEP) what percentage(%) of 4th graders score below basic in overall reading skills? 42%
What percentage(%) of all adults nationally are functionally illiterate ? 25%
What is going on when a student's reading comprehension is more impaired than their listening comprehension? weak word recognition skills(inaccurate or slow)
What do most reading scientists agree underlies poor reading at all ages? a core linguistic deficit
At any age, what areas do poor readers exhibit weaknesses in? 1. phonological awareness 2. speed and accuracy of word recognition skills
What other problems arise when older students continues to have difficulties reading? Overall problems with language(spoken and written) and includes comprehension, vocabulary, spelling, and writing skills
True/False - Effective instruction stimulates language awareness. TRUE
What is the insight that written words are composed of letters of the alphabet that are intentionally and conventionally related to segments of spoken words? The Alphabetic Principle
Majority of poor readers in the intermediate and upper grades who read below the 30th percentile need instruction in what 2 basic skills? 1. the alphabetic principle(map speech sounds to letter symbols) 2. orthographic processing(recognize letter sequence accurately and quickly)
True/False - The reading techniques/strategies used to teach older students are the same as the ones used to teach younger students. False
Teachers can teach older students sound-symbol correspondence in the context of ____________? syllables
Adults typically read at more than _____ words per minute. 300
Third graders typically read at more than ____ words per minute. 100
When teaching comprehension a teacher must simultaneously teach students about ___________, ___________, _________, _________, and _________. sentence structure, text cohesion, punctuation, phrasing, and grammar
Decoding problems in reading are primarily associated with problems segmenting _____ and ____ into phonemes. words and syllables
For at least ____% of children, the decoding process is not straightforward and must be taught. 30%
True/False - At least 10 million children in the United States are poor readers. TRUE
Of all children identified as learning disabled in schools, 80% are primarily impaired in what academic area? Reading and 90% of these children have problems with the development of decoding skills.
There are multiple causes of poor reading, but the primary problems occur at the level of the ______ word. single
What are the 4 causes of poor reading? 1. Neurological 2. Familial/Genetics 3. Social Disadvantage/Cultural 4. Instructional
True/False - The type of direct instruction alphabetic program is less important than the intensity, duration, and teacher training/monitoring so long as the program is structured and explicit. TRUE
What is the ability to deal explicitly and segmentally with sound units smaller than the syllable? Phonemic Awareness
What is the term used to refer to sensitivity to the structure of the writing system(spelling patterns, orthographic rules, inflectional and derivational morphology, etymology)? Orthographic Awareness
What is the term used for strategies that help students attend to and remember what they read? Comprehensive Monitoring Strategies
Research tells us that if we review information within ____ hours of learning it, we are much more likely to remember it in the long run. within 24 hours
What are some possible strategies that can help students with memorization of information learned in the classroom? 1. Sort Information into different categories 2. Frequently Review information learned 3. Use humor or exaggeration to make connections 4. Explore the senses(visual,verbal, kinesthetically) use at least 2 5. Color code 6. Make visual aids(pictures,
Students with learning disabilities in reading usually have problems in _______ as well. Spelling
Poor ______ can hamper writing and can convey a negative impression even when the content of the writing is excellent. spelling
What 3 kinds of knowledge need to be addressed in spelling instruction? 1. basic phonics knowledge 2. word-specific knowledge 3. morphological knowledge
True/False - Teach common irregular words from the earliest stages of spelling. TRUE
True/False - Emphasize activities taht involve oral spelling, not writing or building printed words with letter tiles. FALSE - it is the opposite
True/False - Encourage independent reading to increase exposure to printed words. TRUE - the more exposure to text and print the better
Developing a sense of their individual task pace is essential for students to learn _____________. time management
True/False - Time management is a very important skill, which can often make or break academic success. TRUE
What is an essential element for developing time management and is also the process of identifying what needs to get done to finish a given undertaking? Task Analysis
True/False - Taking the time to teach students how to analyze tasks and estimate time, and practicing with them, helps students develop valuable study skills that will help manage their classwork and homework more confidently and effectively. TRUE
______ _________ is one of the 3 key categories of study skills that contribute to students' ability to organize, remember and apply their knowledge. Time management - other 2 key categories are managing materials and managing information
Teachers can improve the note taking skills of students with mild disabilities in 2 ways by? 1. modifying their presentation during lectures 2. teaching students how to use note taking techniques
True/False - Students with mild disabilities are effective note takers. FALSE- they are NOT effective note takers
Students with learning disabilities are not effective note takers because.....? 1. are often unable to identify the important information to note 2. are unable to write fast enough to keep up with the lecturer 3. even when they do record notes, they are frequently unable to make sense of their notes after the lecture, mostly b/c th
True/False - Notes serve as an extension of our long-term memory. TRUE
What 2 purposes do notes serve for students? 1. aid student understanding of lecture information 2. serve as reference material for later study
True/False - There is a positive correlation between the amount of notes taken and test scores. TRUE - effective note takers are rewarded with high test scores
What are 3 things a sender(teacher) can do to aid student note taking? 1. slow down the pace of the lecture and rate of speaking 2. teacher can cue students about important lecture points throughout the lecture 3. Allow review time after the lecture for students to review their notes
What are the two types of cues teachers can use to prompt students about important information given in a lecture? 1. Emphasis cues - intentional statements or acts or prolonged pauses that indicate to students that they should record information that was just stated 2. Organizational cues - prompt students to categorize a topic in their notes a certain way
What 2 techniques can teachers instruct students on how to record notes? 1. strategic note taking 2. guided notes
What note taking strategy is based on the premise that students can become more strategic during the note-taking process by using megacognitive or strategic skills. Strategic note taking
What note taking strategy uses cued note paper, but the cues are specific to the lecture topic and are developed by the teacher ahead of time? Guided notes
What concept in math plays a crucial role in helping students with learning disabilities to learn mathematics, like phonemic awareness does for reading? Number sense
What term or concept refers to a child's fluidity and flexibility with numbers, the sense of what numbers mean and an ability to perform mental mathematics and to look at teh world and make comparisons? Number sense
What is the concept that with extended practice, specific skills can reach a level of proficiency where skill execution is rapid and accurate with little or no conscious monitoring? Automaticity
True/False - Many children who show phonological based reading difficulties exhibit difficulties in arithmetic retrieval as well. TRUE
True/False - Less than 60% of students with learning disabilities possess significant disabilities in mathematics. False - MORE than 60% of students with learning disabilities have significant disabilities in the area of mathematics.
Special education mathematics instruction continues to focus on ____________ rather than mathematical understanding. computation
True/False - Drill and practice on basic math facts will be insufficient for developing students who are competent in mathematics. True
Even if students are not automatic with basic facts, they should still be engaged in activities that promote the development of _____________ and ___________________. number sense and mathematical reasoning
Created by: alisonmann
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