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SU ENG 251-501

American Literature, Dr Felix

The American Dream today often refers to one's material wealth which is dependent upon one's abilities and work ethic, and not on a rigid class structure.
John Smith was an English soldier, sailor, and author.
John Smith is remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia.
John Smith was a leader of the Virginia Colony between 1607 and 1609
John Smith led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
One of John Smith's most noted works is A Description of New England
The American Dream today often refers to one's material wealth which is dependent upon one's abilities and work ethic, and not on a rigid ____________ class structure.
For others it is the opportunity for their children to grow up and receive an ________ and its consequent career opportunities. education
It is the opportunity to make individual choices without the restrictions of ,_______ religion, ______, or __________. class, caste, race, ethnic group
For others in this the dream of choice and flexibility, the ability to wake up in the morning and decide to drive, cycle or take public __________ to work. transportation
AMERICAN DREAM: A theme in American literature, film, and art that expresses optimistic desires for self-improvement, freedom, and self-sufficiency.
The Pilgrims traveled England → Holland → England → America
There was a total of _____ passengers on the Mayflower 102
In ____ Governor ________ of New England proclaimed a day of “thanksgiving” and prayer to celebrate the Pilgrims’ first harvest in America. 1621, William Bradford
United States president_________, following the precedent of a number of states, designated a national Thanksgiving Day in ____. Abraham Lincoln, 1863
The Puritans were Non-separating Congregationalists Each congregation independent Church of England: true church Repentant church membership England might imitate their “New England.”
The Puritan Grievances were Marian Exiles returned under Elizabeth James I: a sympathetic Protestant? Charles I married Henrietta Maria, Catholic princess Catholic lords given important posts Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud’s “Roman practices”
Puritans were English Protestants who wished to reform and purify the Church of England of what they considered to be unacceptable residues of Roman Catholicism.
Beginning in ______ as many as ______ Puritans emigrated to America from England to gain the liberty to worship God as they chose 1630, 20,000
Theologically, the Puritans were "non-separating Congregationalists."
Unlike the Pilgrims, who came to Massachusetts in 1620, the Puritans believed that the Church of England was a true church, though in need of major reforms.
Puritan dream in America: “a city on a hill”
________ shook the Church in England loose from its ______________ moorings. King Henry VIII, Roman Catholic
during the reign of __________ the nation ____________________. Edward VI (1547–1553), veered sharply toward Protestantism
The Puritans wanted to rid the Church of England of _____________, and to let the New Testament determine church order and worship. all evidences of its historic Catholic connection
As petitioners to King James I put it in 1603, the true church... ought not to be “governed by Popish Canons, Courts, Classes, Customs, or any human invention, but by the laws and rules which Christ hath appointed in his Testament.”
In 1633 Charles appointed _________ as Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud
While aboard the Arbella, Winthrop described a Christian commonwealth in the now-famous sermon, “A Model of Christian Charity.”
John Winthrop was elected Governor of Massachusetts Bay in 1630
Ratio of Pilgrims to Puritans is 201 vs. 40,000-50,000
Both the Pilgrim and Puritan colonies united in _____ to form _____________. 1691, Massachusetts
The New England Primer (1683) taught both the alphabet and faith. the letter U, for example, was remembered by Uriah’s beauteous wife Made David seek his Life.
The New England Primer was so popular, Benjamin Franklin was printing it nearly a century later.
In America, only two “theocracies” have lasted for any length of time: the Puritans in New England, and the Mormons in Utah.
The Puritans’ charter was revoked in 1689
The Puritans could no longer compel assent. They had to tolerate Quakers and Anglicans.
Puritan education By 5 or 6 could read and write (private school or home schooling) Latin school for 7 years: Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Latin, Greek, Hebrew (not in seminary) College: 3 years Seminary: 3 years
There was ____ Literacy 99%, even on the frontier
Cotton Mather lived from (1663-1728)
Cotton Mather was the best-known New England Puritan divine of his generation
Puritanic Model Epigraph - Exposition - Application - Epilogue
Epigraph Biblical Passage
Exposition established the validity using scripture and reasoning.
Application how it relates to communal, spiritual, and familial life.
Epilogue A call to action and an emotional appeal.
The plain style is perhaps best known for the simple four-part outline all Puritan preachers used:
Text: The preacher would “open up” a text—to explain one by one all the words, ideas, and concepts within a Bible verse (or verses).
Doctrine: The preacher then stated in a single statement a “theological Axiom, either consisting in the express words of Scripture, or flowing from them by immediate consequence.”
Uses: the doctrine needed to be proven to be in harmony with the rest of the Bible, and its general implications explained refuting any objections that could be raised and point out the practical “uses” of the doctrine for consolation or correction.
Applications: allowed the preacher to ask whether the congregation had taken the “doctrine” to heart. The plain sermon’s outline and logical development made memorization easy and encouraged note taking by the people for review at home.
The New England colonies have often been called "Bible Commonwealths"
The first printed Bible in English, and the first done independently of the Latin Vulgate (of the Medieval Era), was the work of William Tyndale
Ecclesiastical Puritans established rigid laws: against mixed dancing, card playing, shuffleboard, making minced pies, celebrating Christmas
Massachusetts Sabbath law of 1653: illegal to travel, clean house, cook, or walk on Sunday
The Salem Witch Trials began in 1692
Puritanism began during English Protestant Reformation (16th century)
Some Church of England members wanted complete break from Catholicism & eliminate all traces of the Catholic Church Wanted to make Anglican Church “pure” & called “Puritans”
The earliest American Literature was composed by Native Americans.
Much of Native American Literature was passed down orally.
Native American tales were often mythological and/or folktales, such as Trickster tales.
Often, the diaries and letters of the settlers were propaganda designed to increase settlers’ interest in the land.
The term “Puritan” was applied to two groups of people who believed that: 1) They should separate themselves from the “corrupt” Church of England” or 2) The Church of England needed reform
The four Puritan Beliefs are Predestination Covenant of Works Covenant of Grace Covenant of Redemption
Predestination G-d has chosen certain few of the “elect” for salvation. Unlike other Christians, they believed faith alone was not enough. Whether or not you were “saved” could be determined by your behavior—if you acted in a holy manner, it was assumed you were saved
Covenant of Works G-d promised Adam and his progeny eternal life if they obeyed moral law. Adam broke this covenant.
Covenant of Grace Once Adam broke the Covenant with G-d, He created a new covenant with Abraham. Punishment for sins is considered a proper response to disobedience.
Covenant of Redemption Puritans believed that Jesus freely offered himself as a sacrifice on behalf of all people. G-d must accept Jesus’s sacrifice as a representative for all people.
What the Puritans Did Established settlements in Massachusetts, including Plymouth and Boston. Influenced America’s system of laws and morals. Wrote in “plain style”—writing unadorned with figurative language.
Puritan Histories: William Bradford’s Of Plymouth Plantation
Puritan Poetry: Anne Bradstreet and Edward Taylor
Puritan Sermons: Jonathan Edwards
Puritan Biographies: Mary Rowlandson’s kidnapping account
Puritan “Tracts”: Increase Mather, Cotton Mather
The Scarlet Letter was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter was published in 1850
Hawthorne descended from Salem Witch Trials judge John Hathorne (N. Hawthorne added the “w” for clarification in pronunciation).
The Scarlet Letter is set in the mid-1600’s, during the Puritan era in Boston.
Mystic Massacre Killed 600-700 Pequot Mostly women & children
Conflict in Connecticut in 1634-1638 Pequot Nation resisted English settlements Control of fur & wampum trade Mass Bay Colony/Narragansetts v. Pequot Nation
How many colonist died in King Phillips war +600 colonist died (10% of males: larger percentage than the Civil War or War for Independence):
How did Native Americans view land treaties? No one person owned land There for everyone’s use Treaties only agreed to share land with English settlers
Who could vote in the Massachusetts Bay Colony? All “freemen” could vote Colony stockholders Men who belonged to Puritan church
What two principals did Providence guarantee that Massachusetts Bay did not? Guaranteed separation of Church & State and religious freedom (Roger Williams)
provoked: v. used as an adj.: angered
appease: v. calm; satisfy
abate: v. Reduce in amount or intensity
fain: adv. Archaic word meaning “happily” or “gladly.”
Mediator: Jesus Christ. In general, one who intervenes between two parties in conflict.
forbearance: n. Tolerance, restraint
incensed: v. Used as adj.: angered; enraged
constitution: n. physical condition
contrivance: n.: scheme; plan
affections: n. pl.: feelings
closets n. pl.: rooms for prayer and meditation.
inconceivable: adj., unimaginable; beyond understanding
omnipotent: adj.: all-powerful
abhors: v.: scorns; hates
abominable: adj.: hateful; disgusting
ascribed: v.: regarded as coming from a certain cause.
induce: v.: persuade; force, cause
assunder: adv.: into pieces
Con: means “with” or “together”
Omni: means “all”
Able: means “capable of”
Ance: means “state of being
The theme of ______ as a declaration of independence journey
5 Romantic poets Bryant, Homes, Whittier, Longfellow, and Lowell
Father of American Literature Washington Irving
Father of the American novel James Fenimore Cooper
inventor of the American Short Story E.A. Poe
Ralph Waldo Emerson is the Father of American Transcendentalism
Henry David Thoreau is a famous practical transcendentalist
Herman Melville and Nathaniel Hawthorne are Anti-Romantics
Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman are bridge poets between American Romanticism and the 20th century
The rationalistic view of urban life was replaced by the Romantic view
Romantics saw the city as a place of moral corruption, poverty, and death
Rationalists saw cities as a place to find success and self-realization
The Romantics associated the country with independence, moral clarity, and purity
The Gothic Romantic, E.A. Poe, saw the country as a place of phantasm
Romanticism began in Germany and influenced literature, music, and art
Romanticism is a reaction against Rationalism
Characteristics of Romanticism values feelings over intuition values the power of the imagination seeks the beauty of unspoiled nature values youthful innocence
Characteristics of Romanticism (cont) values individual freedom values the lessons of the past finds beauty in exotic locales, the supernatural, and in the imagination values poetry as the highest expression of the imagination values myth, legend, and folk culture
Romantics believed in__________, or __________ with the natural world contemplating,becoming one
This emerged from Romanticism The Gothic novel
James Fenimore Cooper was the first American novelist to break from European tradition
the first American literary hero was Natty Bumppo
Cooper’s series of novels were called The Leatherstocking Tales
The Fireside Poets a Boston group of Longfellow, Whittier, Holmes, and Lowell, were widely read and loved in America
Romanticism is characterized by the 5 “I”s Imagination Intuition Idealism Inspiration Individuality
British writer Samuel Taylor Coleridge called it “intellectual intuition.”
British Romantic William Wordsworth described poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings.”
During this time period,Romanticism gave way to what movements Women’s Rights and Abolitionism were taking root as major movements.
Walt Whitman, a later Romantic writer, would write a poem entitled “Song of Myself”: it begins, “I celebrate myself…”
This is considered the beginning of literary Romanticism The publication of Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1792
Neoclassicism simple rational mathematical in symmetry and meter; avoidance of the ornate; more periodicals were published during this time
Benjamin Franklin's 13 Virtues were Temperance Silence Order Resolution Frugality Industry Sincerity Justice Moderation Cleanliness Tranquility Chastity Humility Sincerity
The 13 Virtues were motivated by Philippians 4:8
Franklin believed man could attain moral perfection
Ben Franklin died in 1779 at the age of 84
In 1751 B. Franklin founded the first hospital
PLOT series of events that create a story’s meaning and effect. Events arise out of conflict, either external or internal, experienced by the main character
Characterization The way the author presents the characters
Direct Characterization presentation: Characters are described by the author or narrator, or other characters.
Indirect Characterization presentation: Action or speech of the character indicate the character’s traits.
IRONY The opposite of what is expected
Situational irony (expectations created by a situation is reversed)
Cosmic irony (or the irony of fate) (misfortune is the result of fate, chance, or God)
Dramatic irony (audience knows more than characters; so, the words and action have additional meaning for the audience
POINT OF VIEW Perspective from which the story told. First person (omniscient narrator) one-sided perspective Third person (limited omniscient narrator) objective
STRUCTURE How the work is organized
THEME What the author is trying to convey
SYMBOLISM Anything that represents something else
Sinners in the Hand of An angry god was written by John Edwards
Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God was delivered To a church in Enfield CT in 1741
Georgia is often remembered as a primary destination of English convicts
An enormous amount was written about america during the early periods of exploration and settlement
most early writings were... Bound tithe particulars of their place & time
Before the witch trials ended _____ were dead 185
Of those accused_______ were executed 20
the account of the trials was named the Crucible
The crucible was written by Arthur miller
The Carolina's were settled by English, Scots, French Hugeonots, and Barbadians
Pennsylvania was settled by William Penn as a haven of Quaker tolerance
Rhode Island was built on the religious freedoms proclaimed by Roger Williams
Canada was settled by French
Florida was settled by the Spanish
New York was settled by Dutch
In Maryland Catholics mingled with Protestants
Anglican settlers aqcuired their first African slaves from Dutch traders
Virginia began with Anglican Settlers
The settlers who declared their independence from Great Britain were... predominantly English in their language and political institution.
Created by: evinsmc
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