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child psych test 1

childhood psychopathology

externalizing problems aggression & delinquent behaviors very obvious & bothersome to others seen as a problem of "undercontrol" males experience more at younger age, then as get older experience about the same 1970s more recognized early worse cognitive academic & social funct
etiology study of the causes of childhood disorders. considers how biological, psychological, and environmental processes interact to produce the outcomes that are observed over time
interdependent how they influence eachother
continuity developmental changes are gradual and quantitative, and that future behavior patterns can be predicted form earlier patterns. well supported for early onset and persistent conduct disorders
discontinuity developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative, and that future behavior is poorly predicted by earlier patters. eating disorders are well supported by this
in 2007 the United Nations Treaty adopted a new convention to do what? improve disability rights and abolish discrimination
about ___ of 10-16 year olds experience physical and/or sexual abuse 1/3
an organizational view of development implies ____processes dynamic
the part of our brain that regulates our emotional experiences, expressions, and impulses the limbic system
the glands located at the top of the kidneys are important because they produce hormones that ___ energize us and get our bodies ready for possible threats (adrenal glands ---> produce epinephrine)
neurotransmitter implicated in regulatory problems, such as eating and sleep disorders serotonin
ABA involves the examination of ___ antecedents, behaviors, and consequences
attachment typically begins between the ages of ____ 6-12 months
developmental psychopathology perspective emphasize importance of developmental processes and tasks central belief to view maladaptive behavior one must view it in relation to what is normative for a given period of development.
main focus of developmental psychopathology perspective highlighting developmental processes and how they function by looking at extremes and variations in developmental outcome
biological perspective considers brain and nervous system functions as underlying causes of psychological disorders
parietal lobes integrate auditory, visual, and tactile signals. immature until 16 yrs
frontal lobes self control, judgement, emotional regulation. restructured in teen years
corpus callosum intelligence, consciousness, and self awareness. full maturity in 20s
temporal lobes emotional maturity, still developing after 16 yrs
brain stem autonomic functions hindbrain (medulla/pons) breathing, heart digestion midbrain - reticular activation system (arousal and tension diencephalon (thalamus/hypo) regulation of behavior/emotion
forebrain (hippocampus cingulate gyrus septum& amygdala) regulate emotional experiences, expressions &learning/impulse control,sex aggression, hunger & thirst caudate nucleus-cognitions emotions, mood, & motor function
cerebral cortex and hemispheres of forebrain look to the future, plan, and to reason/create left hemisphere is verbal/cognitive right hemisphere is social perception/creativity
endocrine system adrenal glands- produce epinephrine thyroid glands-produce thyroxine to prooperly metabolize and grow pituitary glands- orchestrates body function by regulating hormones
cortisol stress hormone, produced by adrenal glands
benzodiazepine-GABA reduces arousal and moderates emotional responses. linked to feelings of anxiety and discomfort involved in anxiety disorders
dopamine acts as a switch that turns on various brain circuits allowing other neurotransmitters to inhibit or facilitate emotions/behavior, involved in exploratory pleasure seeking activity involved in schizophrenia, mood disorders, and ADHD
norepinephrine facilitates and controls emergency reactions/alarmed responses, emotional and behavioral regulation not directly involved in specific disorders
serotonin informatioin/motor coordination. inhibits tendency to explore surroundings. moderates/regulates eating, sleeping, expressing anger involved in eating/sleeping disorders, OCD, schizophrenia, and mood disorders
emotional reactivity individual differences in the threshold and intensity of emotional experience, which produce clues to individuals level of distress and sensitivity to the environment
emotional regulation involves enhancing, maintaining, or inhibiting emotional arousal which is usually done for a specific purpose or goal
developmental pathways the sequence and timing of particular behaviors relationships between behaviors and possible behaviors over time
multifinality concept that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings
equifinality concept that similar outcomes stem from different early experiences and developmental pathways
psychopathology in boys neurodevelopmental impairments hyperacitivity, autism, disruptive behaivor disorder, learning/communication skills
psychopathology in girls emotional disorders anxiety, depression, eating disorders
internalizing problems anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, and withdrawn behavior cannot be seen readily, seen as a problem of "over control" female/male start out similar, but as age increases females have greater number. 1980s recognized finally
john watson behaviorism, known for theory of emotions
common ground shared by children's psychological disorders they are an indication of adaptational failure in one or more areas of development
idiographic case formulation obtaining detailed understand of the individual child or family as a unique entity
nomothetic formulation emphasizes broad general inferences that apply to large groups of individuals (e.g. children with a depressive disorder)
culture bound syndromes recurrent patterns of maladaptive behaviors and or troubling experiences specifically associated with different cultures or localities
prognosis formulation of predictions about future behavior under specified conditions
semistructured interviews to address lack of standardization and low reliability/ biased gathering of info in unstructured interviews. these include specific questions designed to elicit information in a relatively consistent manner regardless of who is doing the interview
behavioral assessment strategy for evaluating a childs thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in specific settings, and then using this information to fomulate hypothesis about the nature of the problem and what can be done about it. observing directly
target behaviors primary problems of concern
goal of behavioral assessment determine what specific factors may be controlling or influencing target behaviors
ABCs of assessment antecendents, behaviors, consequences
behavior analysis/functional analysis of behavior general approach to organizing and using assessment info in terms of antecendents, behaviors, & consequences across many levels goal-identify as many contributing factors as possible,& to develop a hypothesis 4 factors that are most important/easy changed
developmental tests used to asses infants and young children, and are generally carried out for the purpose of screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of early development
screening the identification of children at risk, who are then referred for a more thorough evaluation (wechsler intelligence scale is most popular)
projective tests present child with ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots or picture of people,m and the child is then asked to describe what they see. hypothesis is that child will "project" own personality (unconscious fears, needs, inner conflicts)
neuropsychological testing attempts to link brain functioning with objective measures of behavior known to depend on an intact central nervous system. behavioral measures can be used to make inferences about central nervous system dysfunction & the consequences of this dysfunction
classification a system for representing the major categories or dimensions of child psychopathology, and the boundaries and relations among them
categorical classification assumes that every diagnosis has a clear and underlying cause like an infection or malfunction of the nervous system and that each disorder is fundamentally different form other disorders
dimensional classification assumes that many independent dimensions or traits of behavior exist, and that all children possess them to varying degrees
axis of DSM 1. clinical disorders 2. personality disorders, mental retardation 3. general medical conditions 4. psychosocial/environmental problems 5. global assessment of funcitoning
intervention broad concept that encompasses many different theories and practices directed at helping the child and family adapt more effectively to current/future circumstances
prevention directed at decreasing the chances that undesired future outcomes will occur
treatment corrective actions that will permit successful adaptation by eliminating or reducing the impact of an undesired outcome that has already occurred
maintenance efforts to increase adherence to treatment over time to prevent relapse or reoccurance of a problem
cultural compatibility hypothesis treatment is likely to be more effective when compatible with the cultrual patterns fo the child and family
psychodynamic treatments view psychopathology as underlying unconscious and conscious conflicts. focus is on developing awareness
behavioral treatments view psychopathology as behaviors learned. focus is on re educating
cognitive treatments view psychopathology as behavior as result of deficits or distortions of childs thinking
cognitive behavioral treatments view psychopathology as disturbances as partly result of family thought pattern, and partly faulty learning and environmental experiences. identify maladaptive cognitions and replace with more adaptive ones.
client centered treatments view psychopathology as a result of social or environmental circumstances. therapist serves as a major adviser or coach
family treatments view psychopathology as determined by variables operating in the larger family system
biological treatments view psychopathology as resulting from biological impairments or dysfunction
phares/compas (1990) studied adolescents distress over emotion/behaivor problems found- made distinction between what behaviors/emotions they found distressing vs what their parents did also reported more personal distress over internal. & perceieved parents more over extern
diathesis stress model incoorporates biological, psychological, and environmental factos, biological vulnerability (diathesis), in combination with psychosocial or environmental stress (divorce, unemployment) creates the necessary conditions for illness to occur
psychoanalysis freud/jung. europe.
radical behaviorists skinner/watson. USA
humanistic rogers/maslow. europe and USA
neofreudian psychoanalytic and humanistic views. emphasized culture, social/interpersonal processes, deemphasizes males superior
trait theorists personality can be described by our traits. between pscyhoanalysis and behaviorism
social learning theory/CBT can learn by observation, we have distorted thought patterns that lead us to feel ill. between behaviorism and humanism
intelligence Wechsler: intelligence is the ability to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment
henry goddard helped introduce the binet simon scales. also created vineland adaptive behavior scales. conducted investigation for heritability of intelligence after being influenced by gregor mendels work served on committee to sterilize ill people, and ellis island
mendel worked with honeybees and plants. preformed breeding experiments on inheritance of certain characteristics. results established for the first time a valid set of principles of genetic inheritance
eugenics the study and practice of selective breeding applied to humans, with the aim of improving the species
kallikak family study goddard, girl found to be a "moron" he traced her ancestry. one side was considered bad side and one good side. problems- too short of study, RAs had no training and knew aim of study, little objective testing, influence of envirn ignored
benton neuropsychologist at iowa (father of neuropsychology
neuropsychological assessment in depth measurement/analysis of a persons mental strengths and weaknesses. purpose is to pinpoint areas of delay, deficit, or discrepancy
Created by: akaas
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