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World Music Final

Vocab for the Final in World Music

QuestionAnswer
Dirge instrumental laments played at a slow tempo.
Pizmon (pl. pizmonim) Hymns with sacred Hebrew texts and popular Arabic melodies sung by Middle Eastern Jews.
Contrafacta A song in which new text is set to a borrowed, pre-existing melody.
Tetracord Segments of four notes related to one another by the mathematics of vibrating string ratios.
Layali In Arab vocal music, an improvisation that introduces a song and which serves to establish the maqam used in the rest of the piece.
Sebet A Sabbath songfest of unaccompanied pizmonim among Syrian Jews in N. America to celebrate an occasion as a bar mitzvah, an engagement, a wedding or birth.
Haflah A party held among Syrian Jews to celebrate a special occasion. Held any day except for the Sabbath, generally feature a pro who sings popular Arabic songs with accompaniment.
Muwashshah an Arabic poetic form, consisting of a multi-lined strophic verse classical Arabic, usually five stanzas, alternating with a refrain with a running rhyme. in No Africa poets ignore the strict rules of Arabic meter while the poets in the East follow them
Maqam ajam An important maqam which sounds similar the Western minor mode. Pizmon Attah El Kabbir is set in maqam ajam.
Silk Road Project is a non profit cultural and educational organization connecting the world by bringing together artists and audiences around the globe. Founded by cellist Yo Yo Ma in 1998, inspiration from Silk Road trading route as a metaphor for multicultural exchange.
Yo Yo Ma Accomplished and versatile American cellist who often crosses between soundscapes. Started the Silk Road Project
Wu Man Pipa, composer (China) Renowned as a pipa performer, collaborating on projects that give the instrument a new role in today’s music world, introducing to new audiences, and enhancing and growing the core repertoire.
Accordion A free aerophone with reeds hidden within two rectangular headboards connected by a folding bellows. Keys or buttons on the right
Bandoneónq A "button accordion, associated with the tango.
Orquesta típica – group basic instruments that accompany the tango in the early years around the turn of the twentieth century, consisting of a piano, violin and bandoneon.
Habanera – Cuban popular dance music of 19th century. creolized form developed from the contradanza. It has a characteristic "Habanera rhythm", and lyrics. first dance music from Cuba exported all over the world.
Compadrito A type of urban gaucho who was reputed to be a Don Juan and pimp.
Gaucho The Argentinian equivalent of a "cowboy.
Tango An Argentinian-derived style of song and dance with a quadruple meter emphasized in the bass. It uses habanera rhythm. Circular dance with steps that progress counterclockwise
Three styles of Tango Dance International, American, Argentinian
Astor Piazzolla Argentinian tango composer and bandoneu  player, who moved to NY with his family when he was child. 1921
Carlos Gardel An early twentieth-century singer who internationalized the tango by moving it from the barrio of Buenos Aires to Paris.
La Cumparsita lyrics is famous, was used many times but with different lyrics. it was due to the ribald nature of the original lyrics that needed a change once the tango left the bordello. Gerard just did the first two parts, and the another parts was add by other composers.
Milonga refers to an Argentine, Uruguayan, and Southern Brazilian form of music which preceded the tango, or it refers to the places or events where the tango/Milonga are danced. Comes from a similar term that means "lyrics".
Bhangra A dance from the Punjab region of north India and Pakistan. is a tightly choreographed group dance, with pronounced leg and shoulder movements and occasional waving of arms high overhead. competitive dance in the Asian diaspora.
Kathak North Indian dance, the instrumentalists follow the rhythms sounded by a solo dancer’s feet and jingle of the bells tied around his or her ankles.
Dhol The double-headed South Asian membranophone associated with bhangra.
Giddha A dance performed by Punjabi women and equivalent to the all male bhangra.
Jhummar traditional dhol rhythm originated in the Punjab. often used for Sufi rituals, and was incorporated into bhangra after Indian independence. Another souce identifies jhummar as women’s circular dance accompanied by dholaki.
Algoza – double flute used in the Punjab.
Chimta – An idiophone with big discs are used at rural festivities.
Bugdu – monochord instrument, single pitch string instrument; the string is anchored within a sound box made from a gourd or wood covered with a skin.
Punjab Region Formerly a state of India, the Punjab region was divided in 1947 between India and Pakistan.
Polka A fast dance in duple meter performed by couples and cultivated in urban ballrooms which originated in central Europe in the nineteenth century. Beer Barrel Polka is one of the most famous early
Polska is a family of music and dance forms shared by the Nordic countries: names include pols, rundom, springleik, and springar. a partner dance in 3/4
Conjunto music In approximately late 1800’s the Mexican population of South Texas and northern Mexico adopted the lively button accordion from the German settlers and combined it with the Spanish guitar, or bajo sexto (a 12
Conjunto ensemble The use of the button accordion with the guitar, bass, and drums. The ensemble and the musical style were called conjunto. Literally “united” or “connected”.
Hidden transcripts Music performances with hidden messengers through metaphorical or coded terms.
Public transcripts Open musical displays of power, there is not hide messenger there, write in lyrics.
Zulu – language or isiZulu, a Bantu language of Southern Africa
Xhosa people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa. The Xhosa language is one of the official languages of South Africa
Sesotho – spoken primarily in South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages, and in Lesotho, where it is the national language.
Apartheid Literally “separation”, the official laws of racial segregation enforced in South Africa until 1990.
Reggae A style of urban Jamaican popular music that originated among the Rastafarians of Jamaica in the 1960s. Evrything from the getto, with political side and almost religious behind the song. From Ska & Rock Steady
Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika music composed in 1897 (Lord bless Africa)
Ras Tafari The Ethiopian emperor who was known by Rastafarians by his birth name, "Ras Tafari.
Rastafarianism A religious movement from Jamaica, venerating the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari). the spiritual use of weed and the rejection of western society, as Babylon. It proclaims Africa (also "Zion") as the original birthplace of mankind
Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s, and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae. Combined elements of Caribbeanmento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues(Fast, off
Rock Steady A successor of Ska and a precursor of reggae, comes from Jamaican dance style. It is quadrupler meter, slow, very strong down beat.
Peter Tosh was a Jamaican reggae musician who was a major member of the musical band The Wailers (1963
Bhangramuffin – Mix of western music with the reggae.
Pawwaw The Algonquian word, first recorded in 1827, referred to “religious practitioners” and healing ceremonies. By 1900 the word was applied to any type of gathering.
Powwow It is a Native American celebration, social gathering and friendly dance compositions, but there are sacred traditions, which are part of this coming together. In the past 15 years they put drums and dance competition.
Honor Beats A series of drum beats as called by American Indians
Flag songs A Native American song performed during the powwow Flag Ceremony to honor the American flag and another tribe flags.
War Dance A Native American dance performed by men. They were a small feathered bustle, along with eagle feathers and breastplate. For the Fancy War Dance, they wear two large bultles decorated with feathers and ribbons.
Fancy Dance is a style of dance some believe was originally created by members of the Ponca tribe in the 1920s and 1930s, to preserve their culture and religion. It is loosely based on the War dance. was considered appropriate for visitors and at "Wild West” shows.
Jingle Dance Womans dance in present-day powwow named after metal jingles which cover festive powwow dresses.
Grass Dance Womans dance in present-day powwow named after the fringed regalia worn in performance
Ululation Onomatopoeic term for the vocal sound of joy or celebration commonly produced by women in Africa and the Middle East.
Sections of the Modern Orchestra The typical orchestra is divided into: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion. Typical marching band has same without strings
Brass Section Brass instruments are essentially very long pipes that widen at their ends into a bell
String Section The strings are the largest family of instruments in the orchestra and they come in four sizes: the violin, which is the smallest, viola, cello, and the biggest, the double bass, sometimes called the contrabass.
Ney A Middle Eastern end blown flute with a breathy quality to its sound.
Reza Vali was born in Iran and studied at the Tehran Conservatory. attended the University of Pittsburgh where he received his PhD in composition and theory. He is currently on faculty at Carnegie Mellon University.
Dastgah Persian musical system, resemble such as Middle Eastern maqam and Indian raga. It comprises a number of distinctive categories of melody distinguished by pitch content, melodic contours, and ornamentation.
Flute Concerto is a concerto for solo flute and instrumental ensemble, customarily the orchestra.
Darabakkah A Middle Eastern membranophone with an hour-glass shape
Daff Shallow frame drum played with hands and fingers, its often associated with religious contexts, such a accompaniment to Islamic chant and Sufi rituals.
Dasthah Homayoun a mode that the western listener hears as having its second step subtly lower that that of the corresponding tone of the Western scale.
Dashti mode Dashti music with inspiration from Persian folk and classical music.
Jinshan means Gold Mountain. The basis of many immigrant songs from China
Gold Mountain USA, represented the land of opportunity
Muyu or Muk’yu Traditional southeastern Chinese genre. a few dozen lines to compositions that can take day to peform. in songbooks. Can be sung by men or women on a variety of occasions. tell of the concerns of everyday life. have a fixed form & vocables.
Sheung Chi Ng ( Uncle Ng) Migrated from China to US sang muyu in China and in the U.S., sang on the street and senior citizens center. Sang about the "gold mountain"
Vocables sounds without meaning.
Melisma A text setting in which each syllable of text is sung to two or more pitches.
Erhu Chinese stringed lute with bow between two strings.
Sheng chinese “mouth organ,” is a mouth
Zheng “plucked zither”, Chinese, curved board zither with approximately twenty
Yangqin Is a trapezoidal hammered box zither
Pipa Chinese, Four string pear-shaped lute held upright
Mawwal a traditional Arabic form that alternates sections in free and regular rhythms. A partly improvised song in colloquial (not classical) Arabic, usually follows a layali (non
Hanan Harouni Lebanese singer who immigrated to New York in the 1940s
Maqam (pl. maqamat) The system governing pitch and melody in Arab music. (maqam ajam = major, and maqam nahawand = minor)
Maqam Huzam Maqam Huzam is the most popular variation of maqam Sikah, with the second tetrachord being Hijaz. Pieces in Sikah rarely go far without modulating on maqam Huzam.
Ud Middle Eastern plucked five-stringed lute. curved back short neck
Qanun plucked zither, Middle Eastern trapezoidal zither with twenty
Darabukkah drums A Middle Eastern membranophone with an hour
Saz a  family of Iranian and Turkish stringed musical instruments
Nay A Middle Eastern end
Santur a trapezoidal hammered dulcimer (zither) The strings are stretched over brigdes in multiple courses (strings per note) and struck with small mallets. Santur (Iran, Iraq, Turkey), Santuri(India)
Spiritual A genre which with verses & refrain, emerged from the musical expression of slaves converted to New World Christianity in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Heddie Ledbetter “Leadbelly” was an iconic American folk/blues musician, notable for strong vocals, his talents on the 12
Paul Robeson American singer, athlete and actor noted for his political radicalism in the civil rights mvmnt. was first star to popularize the performance of Negro spirituals. first black actor of the 20th century to portray Shakespeare's Othello in all
Blue note it's name from characteristic "blue notes" of jazz and the blues. has principally been associated with the "hard bop" style of jazz (mixing bebop with other forms of music including soul, blues, and gospel).
Jazz musical tradition early 20th century in the South from African and Euro music traditions. combined music from 19th and 20th cent American pop music. Its W. African is evident in its use of blue notes, improv, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note.
Syncopation A rhythmic effect which provides an unexpected accent, often by temporarily unsettling the meter through a change in the pattern of stressed/unstressed beats.
Louis Armstrong New Orleans. prominence in the 1920s as an "inventive" player, he was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting from collective improv to solo. distinctive gravelly voice, great improviser, greatly skilled at scat
Jubilee Singers of Fisk University an African American a'cappella group in 1871 to tour and raise funds for their college. mostly traditional spirituals, some Stephen Foster songs.
Scott Joplin an American composer and pianist. dubbed the "King of Ragtime." During brief career, wrote 44 ragtime pieces, one ragtime ballet, and two operas. the "Maple Leaf Rag", became ragtime's first and most influential hit
Corrido A type of ballad popular in Mexico, commemorates historical events and memorable individuals in Mexican and Mexican
Gregorio Cortez Turn
Hero Corrido ballads about heroes like gregorio Cortez, were replaced by what have been termed “victims corrido” as they felt like they were being deprived by the Anglos
Narco Corrido “drugs ballads”, tell tales of powerfull drug lords and are particularly popular in the border area. Compared to gangsta rap
Revolutionary Corrido corrido about social and economic hardships experienced during Carlos Salinas de Gotari’s term as president of Mexico(1988
New Orleans Jazz Band The Band executed the jazz funeral: A special kind of funeral marking the passing of a musician that includes a procession with a jazz band.
Second Liners are people that dance on the street with the band while they walk back from cemetery. They wear ribbons, banners, and pins inscribed with the name and face of the departed.
CD 2 Track 4 Uncle Ng Goes to Gold Mountain vocables mixed with lyrics, limited vocal range. Tells of coming to America to get rich, finding that he can’t make any money, and wishes he could return.
CD 2 Track 5 Wakef'ala shat baher ("Standing on the Shore") maqam buzam, moderate duple meter. Alt between refrain and free rhythms. Heterophonic texture. Lyrics refer to migration
Created by: dharward