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221 midterm

221 physics midterm

QuestionAnswer
Fluoroscopy was developed so that radiologists could view ____ images. dynamic
What is the milliamperage used during fluoroscopy? < 5 mA
The image intensifier improved fluoroscopy by increasing image _____. brightness
The ability of the eye to detect differences in brightness levels is termed ____. contrast perception
X-rays that exit the patient and enter the image intensifier first interact with the _____. input phosphor
The input phosphor converts _____ to _____. x-rays, light
The _____ in the image intensifier emits electrons when it is stimulated by light photons. photocathode
Light produced at the output phosphor of the image intensifier has been increased ____ times in intensity. 50-75
An image intensifier tube is identified by the diameter of its _____. input phosphor
Fluoroscopy for an air contrast barium enema is generally done at _____ kVp. 80-90
Viewing the fluoroscopic image in magnification mode increases _____. a. contrast resolution b. spatial resolution c. patient dose d.all of the above d.all of the above
Television monitoring allows _____ to be controlled electronically. a. brightness b. contrast c. bandwidth d. both a & b both a and b
Automatic brightness control (ABC) maintains the brightness of the image by varying ____. kVp and mA
The most common risk for the angiography patient is____. bleeding at the puncture site
During an interventional procedure, _____ must be maintained on the patient. a. pulse oximetry b. blood pressure easurement c. electrocardiography d. all of the above d. all of the above
The focal spot used for magnification of small vessels cannot be larger than ____ mm. 0.3
The size and construction of the ____ determines the anode heat capacity. anode disk
The power rating for an interventional radiography tube should be at least _____ kW. 80
When imaging a flow of contrast from the abdomen to the feet, a ____ is used. stepping table
The patient table is moved with a floor switch to maintain a _____. sterile field
The _____ artery is the one most often accessed for arteriograms. femoral
A patient must have _____ prior to having an angiography or interventional procedure. a. a history and physical exam b. orders for IV hydration c. a diet of clear liquids d. all of the above d. all of the above
The use of _____ reduces the risk of a drug reaction during angiographic procedures. nonionic contrast
A technologist who passes the ARRT exam in cardiovascular and interventional radiography may add _____ after the RT(R). CI
In soft tissue radiography, all of the tissues being imaged have similar ____. a. effective atomic numbers b. mass densities c. Compton interaction d. all of the above d. all of the above
The breast tissue tends to be increasingly ____ in older women. fatty
About 80% of breast cancer occurs in ____ tissue. ductal
It is recommended that women obtain their first baseline mammogram before the age of ___. 40
A dedicated mammography unit should have an automatic adjustable ____ device. compression
Every dedicated mammography unit is equipped with a _____. low ratio grid
Breast compression has the advantge of lowering what three things? patient dose, motion blur, superimpositions
Breast compression is used to _____ patient dose and ____ focal spot blur. lower, reduce
Breast compression increases what two things? contrast resolution, spatial resolution
Mammograms are taken with _____ cassettes. single screen
Mammography currently uses ____ film. single-emulsion
Screening mammography requires _____ view(s) of each breast, whereas diagnostic mammography requires _____ views. 2, 2 or more
Computer hardware includes the _____. a. keyboard b. central processing unit c. motherboard d. all of the above d. all of the above
The _____ is an example of computer input hardware. a. printer b. CPU c. mouse d. diskette c. mouse
A tape, diskette, hard disk or optical disk is used to _____. a. archive files b. process data c. convert data d. perform calculations a. archive files
The ____ represents zero or one. bit
In computer language, ____ is a "word". 2 bytes
How many bits make a byte? 8
Spacial resolution in _____ is pixel limited. DR
Contrast resolution is more important than _____ resolution for soft tissue radiology. spatial
As pixel size is _____, spatial resolution improves but at the expense of the patient radiation dose. reduced
This digital mammogram is repeated several times at different angles. DMT
Digital radiography is NOT more efficient in time, space, and personnel than screen-film radiography. false
Each CT projection is _____. stored on the computer
The first generation of CT use _____ detector(s). one
The principal drawback of the first-generation CT scanner was the _____. long scanning time
The reduction in _____ was the principal advantage of the second-generation CT scanners. scanning time
Many CT x-ray tubes have the capacity for millions of ___ with each exam. heat units
The patient dose in CT is determined by the ____ collimator. prepatient
CT scanners operate on ____ voltage generation. high frequency
The time from the end of CT imaging to image appearance is called the _____ time. a. reconstruction b. translation c. projection d. Hounsfield reconstruction
Each pixel of information in the CT image contains numerical information in ____ units. Hounsfield
Filtered back projection in CT refers to ___. image reconstruction
CT imaging has excellent ____ because of the narrow beam collimation. contrast resolution
The CT scanner must be calibrated so that ____ is at CT number zero. water
A high variation in pixel values in a homogenous phantom is a measure of ____. image noise
Image noise in CT scanning depends on _____. a. pixel size b. detector efficiency c. slice thickness d. all of the above d. all of the above
Noise appears on the image as _____. graininess
Water has a CT number of _____. 0
Air has a CT number of _____. -1000
Bone has a CT number of _____. +3000
Computed radiography cassettes and film/screen cassettes can be used interchangeable with any x-ray imaging system. true
Computed radiography screens respond to radiation with _____. photostimulable luminescence
A photostimulable phosphor in a metastable state will emit light _____ I. immediately II. when stimulated by light III. Over time I, II and III
The computed radiography cassette is called a(n) _____ plate. imaging
The photostimulable phosphor screen is handled in a _____. reader
The four steps of creating an image with computed radiography are _____. metastable state, stimulate, read, and erase
The digital imaging plate can sit for some time after the erase cycle. false
The laser is one of the _____ features of the computed radiography reader. optical
The output signal from the photostimulable phosphor plate is converted from analog to digital by the _____. computer controls
Computed radiography and screen-film imaging both have a(n) _____. latent image
Spatial resolution, contrast resolution, noise, and artifacts are identical in screen-film imaging and computed radiography. false
The principal source of noise in computed radiography is _____. scatter radiation
The 400 speed film-screen systems are still faster than computed radiography image receptors. false
The computed radiography image has _____. a. narrow exposure latitude b. wide exposure latitude c. improved contrast resolution d. both B and C d. both B and C
When switching from screen-film imaging to computed radiography, which step is eliminated? reloading the cassette
_____ is prevented by flooding the erased imaging plate with bright light. ghosting
Computed radiography imaging produces ____ gray levels. 10,000
Switching from screen-film imaging to computed radiography can _____ patient dose. reduce
The _____ is responsible for supervising quality assurance. chief radiologist
The purpose of a quality assurance program is to maintain the maximum ____ with the minimum ____. quality of mammogram, patient dose
The mammography quality control program is outlined by the _____ Mammography Quality Standards Act
The average glandular dose to mammography patients must be tested annually by the _____. medical physicist
The team of _____ is responsible for mammography quality control. mammographer, radiologist, medical physicist
The medical physicist is responsible for ____ performance evaluation of the imaging equipment. annual
The ____ is responsible for measurement of the mammogram viewing conditions. medical physicist
The medical physicist is responsible for the _____. annual artifact evaluations
The role of medical physicist includes ____. a. doing annual performance evaluations of equipment b. consulting with the mammographers concerning QC c. reviewing the QC records to check for compliance d. all of the above d. all of the above
The mammographer should _____ on a monthly basis. complete a visual checklist
How often should the mammographer perform the quality control test for screen-film contact? semi-annually
Once control valves are set, the daily speed index (mid density) and contrast index (density difference) should not vary more than ____ from the control. 0.15
The sensitometry strip step with the optical density closest to, but not less than, ____ is the speed index (mid density) step. 1.2
Created by: twiford