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dans summer class

diseases and disorders

QuestionAnswer
Celiac Disease Hereditary disorder when a certain protein found in wheat causes an allergic reaction of the intestinal lining resulting in improper absorption of fats from the diet
Hirchsprung's Disease Congenital condition of the large intestine; nerves controlling contractions are missing - serious condition results in severe constipation or vomiting.
Developmental Dysplasia of Hip Femoral head is separated by the acetabulum in the newborn.
Hydrocephalus Enlarged ventricles in which the CSF produced in the ventricles cannot drain.
Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis Bone becomes less dense and more fragile.
Atresias Congenital condition that requires surgery because an opening to an organ is absent, eg. anal atresias is when the anal opening is absent at birth.
Spina Bifida Acculta Mild form of Spina Bifida characterized by some defect or splitting of the posterior arch of L5-S1 with protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges.
Myelocele Most severe type of spina bifida; the spinal cord protrudes through opening.
Meningocele Type of spina bifida; most common and severe form, involves the protrusion of the meninges through the undeveloped opening.
Spina Bifida Posterior aspects of the vertebrae fail to develop, exposing part of the spinal cord (can be discovered before birth by ultrasound)
Cronh's Disease Infection of the intestinal wall that may be in either the small or large intestine.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic disorders of inflammation of the intestines.
Ulcerative Colitis Inflammatory bowel disease that involves the large intestine and usually starts in the rectum or sigmoid.
Hepatomegaly Enlargement of liver indicates liver disease such as acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, or bile duct obstruction.
Osteomalacia Developing bones do not harden or calcify causing skeletal deformities (Rickets).
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Hereditary disorder of bones that are abnormally soft and fragile; infants may be born with many fractures which can result in dwarfism and/or deformities.
Kohler's Bone Disease Form of osteochondrosis; inflammation of bone and cartilage of the navicular bone of the foot.
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease Type of osteochondrosis; leads to abnormal bone growth at the hip.
Scheuermanns's Disease Type of osteochondrosis; bone development changes of the vertebrae result in kyphosis (hunchback).
Hematuria Blood in urine, may be caused by various things such as cancer of the kidneys or bladder, kidney stones, kidney cysts, or sickle cell disease.
Transitional vertebrae Occurs when the vertebra takes on a characteristic of the adjacent region of the spine. Most often in lumbosacral region, vertebra possess enlarged transverse processes.
Spina Bifida Congenital neural tube defect; development anomaly in the posterior vertebral arch.
Tuberculosis Contagious disease caused by airborne bacteria, potentially fatal.
Pleurisy Inflammation of the pleura surrounding the lungs.
Emphysema Irreversible and chronic lung disease in which alveoli air spaces become greatly enlarged.
Cystic Fibrosis Most common inherited disease; secretions of heavy mucus cause progressive "clogging" of bronchi and bronchioles.
Bronchitis Acute or chronic condition in which excessive mucus is secreted into the bronchi creating cough and shortness of breath.
Atelectasis Partial or full collapse of a lung.
Asthma Respiratory disorder characterized by recurring episodes of paroxysmal dyspnea, wheezing.
Whiplash Injury of the cervical vertebrae or supporting ligaments and muscles marked by pain and stiffness; caused by acceleration or deceleration movement of the neck.
Pectus Excavatum Depressed sternum; it will embarrass the heart- surgery is required usually for cosmetic reasons.
Hydrocephalus Abnormal accumulation of CSF within the cranial vault; dilation of the ventricles.
Herniated Disk Rupture of the fibrocartilage surrounding an intervertebral disk, releasing the nucleus pulposus that cushions the vertebrae above and below - considerable pain, damage nerves.
Cervical Rib Rib that articulates with a cervical vertebrae but does not reach the sternum, usually C7.
Tendonitis Inflammation of the tendon, usually resulting from strain.
Subluxation Incomplete dislocation; partial abnormal separation of the articular surfaces of a joint.
Osteoporosis Abnormal loss of bone density and deterioration of bone tissue with an increased fracture risk.
Osgood-Schlatter Inflammation of bone and cartilage involving the anterior proximal tibia, injury causes the patellar tendon to detach from part of the tibial tuberosity.
Gout Form of arthritis that may be hereditary in which uric acid appears in excessive quantities in the blood; first attacks the first MTP joint.
Fracture Breaks in the structures of bone caused by a force, either direct or indirect.
Bursitis Inflammation of the bursa, connective tissue structure surrounding the joint.
Osteochondrosis Primarily affects the epiphyseal or growth plates of long bones resulting in pain, deformities, and abnormal bone growth.
Hypospadias Congenital condition of infant males, the opening of the urethra is to the underside of the penis.
Hydronephrosis Enlarged kidney distended with urine, caused by an obstruction of urine.
Horseshoe Kidney Congenital condition in which the two kidneys are joined together.
Pneumothorax Accumulation of air in pleural space, causing atelectasis.
Pneumonia Inflammation of lungs resulting in "accumulation" of fluid within certain sections of the lungs, creating increased radiodensities.
Aspiration pneumonia Caused by aspiration of a foreign object or food into the lungs, which irritates the bronchi, resulting in edema.
Bronchopneumonia Bronchitis of both lungs.
Lobar pneumonia Pneumonia confined to one or two lobes.
Viral pneumonia Interstitial inflammation of the alveoli and connecting tissues.
Pneumonoconiosis Disease of the lung caused by chronic inhalation of dust; anthracosis, asbestosis, silicosis.
Pleural Effusion Abnormal accumulation of fluid in pleural cavity. Empyema, fluid is pus. Hemothorax, fluid is blood.
COPD Consistent obstruction of airway as caused by emphysema or chronic bronchitis.
Bronchiectasis Irreversible dilation or widening of bronchi or bronchioles resulting from repeated pulmonary infection or obstruction.
Spondylolysis Condition of the spine characterized by fixation or stiffness of a vertebral joint.
Spondylolisthesis Partial forward dislocation of one vertebrae over the one below it; usually L5 over S1.
Osteophyte Bony outgrowth, usually found around a joint.
Degenerative disk disease Deterioration of a disk.
Spondylitis Inflammation of any of the vertebrae; causes stiffness and pain. Could be caused by traumatic injury, infection, rheumatoid disease.
Ankylosing Spondylitis Chronic inflammatory disease, unknown origin, first affecting the spine and adjacent structures, progressing to eventual fusion of the involved joints.
Achondroplasia A disorder of the growth cartilage in the epiphysis of the long bone and skull; premature ossification permanent limitation of skeletal development.
Osteopetrosis Increase in bone density, probably caused by the faulty bone resorption resulting from a deficiency of osteoclasts.
Talipes Deformity of foot and ankle, usually congenital; club foot.
Paget's disease (osteitis deformans) Non-Neoplastic bone disease that disrupts new bone growth resulting in over production of very dense, yet soft, bone.
Osteomyelitis Local or generalized infection of bone and bone marrow usually caused by bacteria introduced by surgery or trauma.
Osteomalacia (rickets) Bone softening; lack of bone mineralization because of deficiency of calcium, phosphorus, and/or vitamin D.
Osteochondroma (exostosis) Benign tumor composed of bone and cartilage.
Osteoarthritis DJD Non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by gradual deterioration of the articular cartilage with hypertrophic (enlargement or overgrown) bone formation.
Epicondylitis Painful inflammation of the muscle and surrounding tissue of the elbow; tennis elbow, golfers elbow.
Acromegaly Over secretion of growth hormones; gradual marked soft tissue enlargement and widening/thickening of skeletal bones in the face, jaw, hands, and feet.
Osteochondrodysplasia Hereditary disorder in which the bones grow abnormal, most often causing dwarfism or short stature.
Achondroplasia Form of short-limbed dwarfism; results in decreased bone formation in the growth plates of long bones.
Created by: twiford