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Common gait deviatio

Common gait deviations

Lateral trunk bending (Trendelenburg gait) the result of weak gluteus medius; will see bending to the same side as the weakness
Backward trunk lean the result of weak gluteus maximus; will also see difficulty going up stairs or ramps.
Forward trunk lean the result of weak quadriceps (decreases flexor movement at the knee), hip and knee flexion contractures.
Excessive hip flexion the result of weak hip extensors or tight hip and/or knee flexors.
Limited hip extension the result of tight or spastic hip flexors.
Limited hip flexion the result of weak hip flexors or tight extensors.
Abnormal synergistic activity (stance phase) (e.g. stroke) excessive hip adduction combined with hip and knee extension, plantarflexion; scissoring or addcuted gait pattern.
Antalgic gait (painful gait) stance time is abbreviated on the painful limb; the uninvolved limb has a shortened step length since it must bear weight sooner than normal.
Excessive knee flexion the result of weak quadriceps (knee wobbles or buckles) or knee flexion contracture.
Knee hyperextension the result of a weak quadriceps, plantar flexion contracture, or extensor spasticity (quadriceps and/or plantar flexion)
Toe first (toe contact at heel strike) the result of weak dorsiflexors, spastic or tight plantarflexors; may also be caused by a shortened leg; painful heel; or positive support reflex.
Positive support reflex toe first
Foot slap the foot makes floor contact with audible slap; the result of weak dorsiflexors or hypotonia; compensated for with steppage gait.
Foot flat entire foot contacts ground; the result of weak dorsiflexors, limited range of motion; immature gait pattern (neonatal).
Calcaneous gait excessive dorsiflexion with uncontrolled forward motion of the tibia; the result of weak plantarflexors.
Equinus gait excessive plantarflexion; heel does not touch the ground; the result of spasticity or contracture of the plantar flexors; will see poor eccentric contraction and advancement of the tibia.
Supination of ankle/foot excessive lateral contact of foot during stance with varus position of calcaneus. May occur at initial contact and correct at foot flat with weight acceptance or remain throughout stance.
Supination of ankle/foot causes spastic invertors, weak evertors, pas varus, genu varum
Pronation of ankle/foot excessive medial contact of foot during stance with valgus position of calcaneus.
Pronation of ankle/foot causes weak invertors, spasticity, pes valgus, genu valgum.
Toes claws the result of spastic toe flexors, possibly a hyperactive plantar grasp reflex.
Inadequate push off the result of weak plantar flexors, decreased ROM, or pain in the forefoot
Insufficient forward pelvic rotation (stiff pelvis, pelvic retraction) the result of weak abdominal muscles, weak flexor muscles (e.g. stroke)
Insufficient hip and knee flexion the result of weak hip and knee flexors; inability to lift the leg and move it forward.
Circumduction the leg swings out to the side (abduction/external rotation followed by adduction/internal rotation); the result of weak hip and knee flexors.
Hip hiking (quadratus lumborum action) a compensatory response for weak hip and knee flexors, or extensor spasticity.
Steppage gait excessive hip and knee flexion: a compensatory response to shorten the leg; the result of weak dorsiflexors (diabetic neuropathy of the fibular nerve).
Abnormal synergistic activity (swing phase) (e.g. stroke) excessive hip and knee flexion with abduction.
Insufficient knee flexion the result of extensor spasticity, pain/decreased ROM, or weak hamstrings.
Excessive knee flexion the result of flexor spasticity; flexor withdrawal reflex.
Foot drop equinus: the result of weak or delayed contraction of the dorsiflexors or spastic plantarflexors.
Varus or inverted foot is the result of spastic invertors (anterior tibialis), weak peroneals, or abnormal synergistic pattern (e.g. stroke)
Equinovarus the result of spasticity of the posterior tibialis and/or gastrocnemius/soleus; developmental abnormality.
Created by: watsdny