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Gait statistics

gait terms and statistics

QuestionAnswer
Pelvic rotation the pelvis moves forward and backward (transverse pelvic rotation)
Pelvic forward rotation occurs on the side of the unsupported or swing extremity; mean rotation is ~4 degrees
Pelvic backward rotation occurs on the weight-bearing or stance leg. ~4 degrees for a total of 8 degrees
Pelvic up and down motion or lateral tilt occurs on the unsupported or swing side ~5 degrees; controlled by hip abductor muscles.
Lateral pelvic tilt high point midstance
Lateral pelvic tilt low point period of double support
Pelvis moves side to side ~4 cm, follows the stance or support limb
Cadence the number of steps taken per unit of time. Mean cadence is 113 steps/minute
Increased cadence shorter step length and decrease duration of period of double support.
Running occurs when the period of double support disappears, typically at a cadence of 180 steps/minute.
Step length the linear distance between point of foot contact (heel strike) of one extremity to the point of heel strike of the opposite extremity
Step time the number of seconds that elapse during one step.
Step width the distance between feet (base of support); measured from one heel to the same point on the opposite heel
Normal step width ranges from 2.54cm to 12.7 cm (1-5 inches)
Stride length the linear distance between two consecutive contact points of the same extremity.
Stride time the number of seconds that elapse during one stride (one complete gait cycle)
Velocity (walking speed) the rate of motion in any direction, the distance is divided by the time.
Average walking speed 82 m/min (~3 mi/hour)
Average oxygen rate for comfortable walking 12 mL/kg/min
Metabolic cost of walking averages 5.5 kcal/min on level surfaces; energy cost may vary widely depending on speed of walking, stride length, body weight, type of surface, gradient and activity (stair climbing)
Increased energy cost of walking occurs with age, abnormal gait (e.g., disease, muscle weakness or paralysis, physical disability), or with use of functional devices (crutches, orthoses, prostheses).
Created by: watsdny