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final-review 48

gait terms

Base of support: . The distance measured between the left and right foot during progression of gait. The distance decreases as cadence increases. The average base of support for an adult is two to four inches
Cadence: The number of steps an individual will walk over a period of time. The average value for an adult is 110–120 steps per minute.
Degree of toe-out: The angle formed by each footʼs line of progression and a line intersecting the center of the heel and second toe. The average degree of toe-out for an adult is seven degrees.
Double support phase: The double support phase refers to the two times during a gait cycle where both feet are on the ground. The time of double support increases as the speed of gait decreases. This phase does not exist with running.
Gait cycle: The gait cycle refers to the sequence of motions that occur from one initial contact of the heel to the next consecutive initial contact of the same heel.
Pelvic rotation: Rotation of the pelvis opposite the thorax in order to maintain balance and regulate speed. The pelvic rotation during gait for an adult is a total of 8 degrees (4 degrees forward with the swing leg and 4 degrees backward with the stance leg).
Single support phase: The single support phase occurs when only one foot is on the ground and occurs twice during a single gait cycle.
Step length: The distance measured between right heel strike and left heel strike. The average step length for an adult is 28 inches.
Stride length: The distance measured between right heel strike and the following right heel strike. The average stride length for an adult is 56 inches.
Tibialis anterior: Peak activity is just after heel strike. Responsible for eccentric lowering of the foot into plantar flexion.
Gastroc-soleus group: . Peak activity is during late stance phase. Responsible for concentric raising of the heel during toe off
Quadriceps group: Two periods of peak activity. In periods of single support during early stance phase and just before toe off to initiate swing phase.
Hamstrings group: Peak activity is during late swing phase. Responsible for decelerating the unsupported limb.
Rom required for gait Hip flexion 0 – 30 degrees
Rom required for gait Hip extension 0 – 10 degrees
Rom required for gait Knee flexion 0 – 60 degrees
Rom required for gait Knee extension 0 degrees
Rom required for gait Ankle dorsiflexion 0 – 10 degrees
Rom required for gait Ankle plantar flexion 0 – 20 degrees
Created by: micah10



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