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WSET Study 2

Vinification, Bottling, Maturation

Making Red Wine Maceration - wine and skin left together. 6 days for wine of good color, 12 + days for tannic wine destined for ageing. Ferment at (20-35 C) pumping over or punch down method
The Grape Juice (sugar acide, flavors); skins (tannins, coloring, flavoring); pips & stalk (tannin)
Grape - surgar ripeness affects final alcohol level
Grape - phenolic ripeness affects flavors, acides, tannins
Carbonic Maceration Fermentation of uncrushed grapes under a blanket of CO2. Uses grapes own enzymes in absence of yeast. E.g. Beaujolais Nouveau
Fining Agent Causes tiny particles to coagulate so fall under gravity or filtered. E.g. egg white, bentonite, kieselghur
Vinification Crushing (breaks grape skin, juice runs out); Pressing (separate liquid and solid grape matter)l Fermentation - main yeast is saccharomyces cerevisiase (sugar conveted to alcohol, carbon dioxide and heat are by products)
Making Rose wine 1) black grape press directly and juice fermented (vin gris) 2) abbreviated red wine maceration, (1-3 days and then juice fermented w/out skin) 3) saignee - grapes destalked but not crushed, vatted for 12-24 hrs, run off and fermented w.out skin contact
Making white wine Ferment at (15-20 C) oak, less contact, etc.
Malolactic (secondary) fermentation Tart malic acid converted to softer lactic acid. Necessary for red wine, maybe encourage by raising temp and not adding sulphur dioxide. With white, more careful - can soften acide, new flavors like butter & hazelnut, but lose some pure fruit aroma
Sulphur Dioxide Acts as antioxidant and antispectic. Can kill bad yeasts & bacteria; prevent oxidation of wine
Making Sweet wine 1. Botrytis; 2. Passito (drying grapes); 3. Freezing; 4. Filtering; 5. Sussreserve (unfermented grape juice)
Must Adjustments I 1. Chaptalization/enrichment - sugar is sometimes added to increase alocohol; 2) sulphur dioxide (SO2) acts as an antioxidant or antispectic 3) Acidification - add tartaric acid in powder form
Must Adjustment II 3. Acidification - by adding tartaric acid in powder form; 4. Deacidification (cooler regions) - excess acid neutralized by addition of postassium bicarbonate; 5. Tannin may be increased by addition of powder
Plate filters Remove unwanted particles
Membrane filters remove yeast & bacteria
Cold, sterile bottling for wine of low alcohol, residual sugar
Hot bottling wine heated in bottle to kill microbes (normally in cheap wines)
Maturation To survive ageing, high levels of tannin, acidity and or alcohol needed. Also need fruit that will develop to make ageing worthwhile
Microbiological stabilization yeast & bacteria can cause problems. 1) add sulpphur dioxide or heat to kill bad yeast. 2) pasteurization (mainly red) "flash" heat to 95c for a second
Casse Chemical faults in a wine - haziness, deposit, often with off-smells and flavors
Racking Process from which wine is removed from its sediment and put in a fresh cask.
Created by: bopark