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Mus 006

Final exam for Music around the world

Otherness The fact that there are differences between cultures. The uniqueness of cultures.
Hawai’i Northernmost archipelago (chain of islands) of Polynesia state of the US and home of the Tau Moe Family. Known for Ukulele and vibrato style of steel guitar in Hawaiian music.
Polynesia Collection of more than 4000 islands in the Pacific Ocean.
The Tau Moe Family Hawaiian music group who played throughout the world for more than 50 years. Eventually would split into separate ensembles. They were the face of Hawaiian music and island life of the time and spread awareness of the genre throughout the world.
Ukulele Resembles small guitar with 4 strings and descended from Portuguese braguinha. small chordophone.
steel guitar Guitar played with techniques similar to the Indian zithers such as vibrato, also “palm harmonics” or chimes and played with plectra on fingers. Guitar lays flat on the musicians lap or on a horizontal stand.
Glissando Musical gesture which entails sliding from one pitch to another.
Tremolo Musical trembling/waving effect
Yodeling Any fluctuating in the voice while singing.
Gamelan Large Indonesian ensemble consisting mainly of metallophones
Gamelan Gong Kebyar Gamelan originating in Bali in the first 2 decades of the 20th century and characterized by sudden, intense bursts of sound and discontinuity in structure. Also known for shimmering sound and interlocking parts.
Gong Anklung bamboo tubes
Gong Lanang Higher pitched "Male" gong.
Gong Wadon Bigger, lower pitched "female" gong.
Gangsa Metallophones (bronze plates hit by hammers and set on wooden platforms). Consisting of small instruments (create melody and played with wooden hammers) and large instruments (used to create bass line and played with mallet)
Suling Bamboo flutes in Balinese gamelan
Rabab Bowed fiddle used in Balinese gamelan
Shimmer Effect - each instrument are tuned to eachother, but not the same exact pitch.
I Nyoman Windha (1956) Balinese composer
Evan Ziporyn (1959) composer from the U.S. ;; composes songs for the gamelan
Shashmaqam Uzbekistani organization of music. Suite style organization. Means 6 maqams Qyl-Qobyz
Qyl-Qobyz Hair instrument played by the nomadic people Kazakhs. Played for Gods and nature worship. Used in shamanic rituals (Animism) -stringed fiddle
Pipa Derived from Central Asian lutes that made it to China through the Silk Road. Plucked Lute with 4 strings.
Wu Man Musician who plays the 4-stringed Pipa (Chinese plucked lute). Also a contributor to the Silk Road Project.
Bhangra Types of dance: Ceremonial/ritual, classical, social, competitive From India (Punjab) - Men’s dance - quadruple meter
Giddha Women’s Danc
Desi Descendants of those from Punjab, India that end up in other parts of the world. Basically a Punjabi diaspora. Children of those who migrated from Punjab.
Jhummar Bhangra dance. Replicate agricultural work
Dhol Double-headed drum played with two sticks on both sides, play rhythmic patters called “Bolis”
Algoza Double flute used in banghra
Polka popular dance in double (duple) meter (1 and 2 and). couples dance developed in urban dance, United states and Mexico. First appearered in the city of Prague (Czech Republic). Spread to the United States (midwest and texas). late 19th cent.
Valerio Longoria Added Drum set, Sonido Ronco, Bandaneon to Conjunto.
Bandoneon Button accordion used in the tango -plays an essential role in the orquesta tipica, the tango or
Carlos Gardel Tango singer, was a lower class citizen. sang “La Cumparsita” (tango SONG version, listening guide 63)
Astor Piazzolla Pioneer of “new tango”, which is tango for listeners. “Adios Nonino” (listening guide 64)
Rudolph Valentino An actor in the early silent films made famous from performing tango in one movie. Career took off from there. Introduced a very aggressive style of tango via inducing submission on the part of the woman. “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” (1921)
Lhasa administrative capital of Tibet Autonomous Region
Mandala disticntive tibetan chant vocal style. Performing chant moves singer to a transformed state. Fundamental + Harmonics. Timber of technique
Midzo Voice disticntive tibetan chant vocal style. Performing chant moves singer to a transformed state. Fundamental + Harmonics. Timber of technique
Rol Mo The accompanied several instruments (alternates) Vocal sections alternating with instrumental sections
Dung Chen Long metal trumpet in Tibetan music Very loud and brass
Mahakala Part of a ceremonial dedicated to god, Wrathful force, protector representative of the aspects around us
Sadhana Ritual meditation text, that evokes the deity and helps connect to him.
Arawak ndigenous people of Cuba The Arawak are the natives of the West Indies (Cuba, Jamaica, etc) discovered by Christopher Columbus.
Santeria Religous practice that emerged from the Yoruba Spanish community.
Santero/Santera every santero/a has a patron orisha, relationship is established during their initiation. Each orisha represents a quality of nature and/ or human life, distinct personality
Syncretism: combination of different religious and philosophical beliefs or practices. merging of different intellectual forms. Molding of culture and music. music deriving from other establish forms
Bata: Drums: only come in set of three. Two headed drums. sacred, inseparable trio. of Iya, Ito’tele and Oko’nkolo. can create a total of six tones, and the tones correspond with the yoruba language
Iya Mother drum (largest) Has bells on it called Chaworo’ (All the drums are shaped like an axe which is representative of the god Chongo)
Itotele Middle sized drum
Okonkolo: smallest drum
Chaworo: Bells attached to the Iya’ Drum
Yoruba Language spoken (other two are spanish and vocables)
Chango: od of thunder, Lightning, and Battle. Often associated with Red, and holds a battle axe Santeria orisha who is addressed in Listening Guide 66
Toques A Santeria rhythmic pattern incorporated Santeria liturgy, each associated with a different orisha
Kebaro Ethiopian double-headed conical membranophone.
Ge’ez The Ethiopian Christian liturgical language. Also is part of the Holy Trinity as God the Father.
Dabtara Ethiopean church musicians who are also scribes and healers.
Public Transcript Open musical displays of power. Affirms existing power structures. National anthems
Hidden Transcript Musical performances and repetories that embed messages through metaphorical or coded terms. Often express dissent (but not always) Protest songs
Pretoria City located in South Africa
Bantu Languages Languages spoken by the Xhosa, Zulu, and Sesotho in South Africa
Apartheid 1948- Laws passed to keep blacks and whites separate in South Africa, means "separate-ness"
Townships 1948- Laws passed to keep blacks and whites separate in South Africa, means "separate-ness"
Townships Small towns created for the blacks of South Africa to live in 1950 orchestrated by the European powers to further disenfranchise native Africans.
African National Congre Political party in South Africa which fought for black rights and has been the ruling party since the end of the apartheid
Enoch Mankayi Sontonga Black choirmaster and composer in South Africa, wrote ‘Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika in 1897 (listening guide 70, protest song) (listening guide 71, revision of protest song with euro lyrics)
Nelson Mandela Leader of the ANC, spent majority of his time in prison as a political prisoner until his release, later became first president of South Africa
Vuyisile Mini Composer, Singer of freedom songs and one of the first member of the ANC to be executed in 1964 by the South African government
Rastafari Religious movement from Jamaica whose adherents venerate the Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari)
Haile Selassie Ethiopian emperor who seemingly fulfilled Jamaican prophesy as a savior and inspired Rastafari by resisting “Babylon” (Perhaps, his name was Ras Tafari before he became emperor?)
Jah Rastafari word for God
Babylon Rastafari name for white colonial powers
Ska Predecessor of reggae, based on an indigenous Jamaican rhythm, emphasized the off-beats in quadruple rhythmic pattern
Reggae Urban Jamaican popular music that originated among the Rastafarians of Jamaica in the 1960s. Upbeat, carefree.
Peter Tosh Reggae singer and member of the band The Wailers. Added political content such as gang, poverty, joblessness.
Bob Marley Famous reggae singer, helped popularize reggae internationally, member of The Wailers
Shoshone A Great Basin people who migrated to the Plains
Invention of Tradition Newly invented cultural forms without reference to historical realities. No real bases in historical reality. Constructed. No less significant in the community that uses them, doesnt have to have bases, for it to be meaningful within the community.
Iran: Settled by Iranian tribes from central asain ato least 4000 years ago. Persian empire (approx. 625 BCE- 7th century CE) persia becomes Iran. Shah reza Pahlavi comes to power. The Iranian Revolution renamed the to the Islamic republic of Iran.
Tombak Goblet shaped Hand drum
Ney: means “reed” (reed broken from swamps). End Blown Flute, Mouth hole carved with a sloped edge often covered with brass. Strong emotional, and spiritual associations.
Isfahan Technique used in classical persian music playing the Ney. Creates a breathy sound (timbre), humming effect when the player grits his teeth against the instrument by the blowing end
Dastgah: System of modes (scales) and melodic organization. Different categories of meoldy. Classical form of persian traditional music. organized into a suite structure, lots of pieces and preformed in a set order. (all the pieces are in a single Dastgah)
Gushe Each individual melody in a Dastgah
Mowlana Jalaleddin Rum The nay is a symbol of the souls longing to be reunited with the divine. Sufism (branch of Islam) Belief that you can directly experience the divine through song and dance; he captured the sound of the ney and articulated it with spirituality
Reza Vali Persian composer of Flute Concerto (listening guide 77) who studied western classic european music. played two instruments the trombone and trumpet. got his PHD at Pittsburg. Combined with western music. (musical borrowing)
Homayoun: Improvisation, player starts at the low end of the notes, and works toward the top of the range.
Darabukkah Hand drum shaped like a goblet
Created by: kpool001
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