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Final notes 117

bousfields Clustering Studies (he coined the word) gave participants lists of words to recall in any order, and found ppl will cluster ideas together. Main idea that input and output order dont match. shows that during encoding you are categorizing.
penfield theorized about LTM? that we keep most if not all past experiences in memory but they are typically harder to access in a conscious state.(LOOK THIS UP IN BOOK)
when recalling a list when clustering what kind of info will be reported? will recall the randomized items in a categorry and superordinate things such as (sports) will be recalled before subordinate (golf).
what we use to study clustering and recall. Adjusted Ratio of Clustering.
What does the ARC do? adds the number of times items from the same category appear after each other in recall, corrected for the number we might expect items from the same category to appear next to each other by chance.
ARC Score of 1.00 or 0.00? 1.00 - means everything is perfectly categorized. 0 means no category at all and things are simply randomly recalled.
behaviorists dont like ARC because... the clustering was created by the subject cognitively and not by how it was presented, showing unseen cognition.
collins and quillian teachable language comprehended. (TLC) which postulated we answer based on inference... created computer program to imitate how humans make associations and respond to questions like, does a canary have lungs? you say yes, but you've never seen it so how did you arrive to that answer?
Associative Network Model based on links of association to other things, such as when asked what comes to mind when thinking of "black" you auto respond "white" because somehow they are linked. concepts are linked to features and to specific examples.
definition of a concept in the associative network model an abstract and generalized representation of a class of objects sharing certain common properties.
why are the links in the ANM important? because they provide the knowledge, examples, and the features of that concept.
Cognitive Economy, what is it? the properties of concepts are stored at the highest possible node. so skin is associated with animal and not with each specific animal, so things are not duplicated and repeated.
What is Spreading Activation? a node is activated when sensed, activation then spreads to near by nodes along the connecting links.
Assumptions Collins and Quillian made about spreading activation: 1. activation spreads out randomly along the links, running from the... activated node to the nearest nodes.
Assumptions Collins and Quillian made about spreading activation: 2. Amount of activations spreading from A node is ….. Finite
Assumptions Collins and Quillian made about spreading activation: 4. when one activation from one node intersects that of another... the network is signaled that those two concepts are related.
Assumptions Collins and Quillian made about spreading activation: Activation takes a ______ amount of time to spread from one to another node. finite
what will be quickly activated with canary: bird or animal? Bird
which type of node will take less time to verify subordinate
subordinate go deeper and go down to lower levels becoming more exact and less generalized
superordinate the highest and tip of the pyramid, more generalized, further from exacts.
what is the problem with TLC about sub and Superordinate words? they treat all sub and superordinate words as equals, when obviously that isn't possible.
what effect led to major revisions in TLC? the Semantic DIstance effect.
what is the semantic distance effect? (CHECK BOOK) not all birds are good examples, it takes longer to say an ostrich is a bird than canary.
Depth of Processing (DOP) Craik and Lockhart memorability of information is determined primarily by the encoding operations carried out on that information.
The different types of encoding that is assumed to vary the depth of processing. in order of least depth of processing 1. Orthographic orienting tasks. (shallowest) 2. Phonemic orienting task 3. Semantic orienting task (deepest)
what is an orthographic orienting task? a question about the a physical property of the stimulus, such as, is the writing large or small?
what is the phonemic orienting task? making judgements about the acoustic properties of the stimuli, such as, do these words rhyme?
what is the semantic orienting task? ask subjects to access the meaning of the stimuli. "does this words have a pleasant meaning?"
what is Incidental learning? the subject is not told to remember or learn a stimuli but then is tested on this.
suspicion raised about DOP? although the it has been supported by lots of research, people take issue with the theory itself, believing it does not fully explain the outcomes.
state dependent learning if sad at learning you will be better at retrieval if sad.
mood congruence emotional state at retrieval determines the quality of the material one is likely to recall. if you were happy this weekend and you are happy know you are more likely to recall the happy things that happened.
bower study is an example of state dependence memory, what was the study? hypnotized people, suported the theory, if they were happy learning and sad at recall not as good.
what are the two requirements to test mood congruence? 1. stimuli to be learned must have emotion implications ( they can describe sad or happy events) 2. subjects learn these in a neutral mood and retrieve them in a non neutral mood.
study about mood congruence? sad jack and happy andre. if you read about these two while in a neutral mood then asked to recall in those moods then they recall better for the matching story.
Created by: bbbennington