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WSET Study 1

General, Labels, Climate, Viticulture

QuestionAnswer
1 Hectare 2.47 Acres
1 Hectolitre 26.4 Gallon
Farenheit Celsius x 1.8+32
# of Grapes on Label in EU Max of 2 but any in description
$ of Grapes on Label Non-EU Mostly 2 or 3 but Australia 5
Varietal Label EU 85% of Grape
Varietal Label Non-EU 100% of Grape
Varietal Label US 75%
Varietal Label Aus, NZ, Arg, Chile 85%
EU Mandatory Label Info Quality Wine PSR (or equiv); Name of the Region; Bottler, Name and Address, Volune Contents, Lot No, Total Abv
EU Mandatory Label - Third Country Word "wine;" names of region and country, importer name and address, lot no.; total Abv
Colure Flower does not set because of weather
Millerandage Fruit fails to set because of weather
Site Climate Climate of individual vineyard site
Canopy Management Affecting climate of an individual vine; e.g. covering a vine with leaf
Terroir Relationship between Soil, Climate, Grape
Climate - Affect of vineyards close to rivers Less frost damage, movement of of water encourages air currents
Climate - Mountains Can be "rain shadow" i.e. Vosges mountain protect vines in Alsace; or source of cold winds i.e. Mistral in Rhone Valley; Regions that are tool hot can plant at higher altitude (cooler)
Continental Climate Vineyard in middle of substantial landmass (e.g. La Mancha is in center of Spain); Extreme temperature in both winter and summer
Maritime Climate Found near large bodies of water; warm summers, mild winters
Ideal soil for vines Grapevines like dry soil as certain water stress needed for quality; however, in drought, leaves shut down; no sugar, grapes don't ripen
Training Purpose: to display foliage and fruit
Types of Training 1. 1. Bush Training/Gobelet. Spur pruned, warmer regions like Beaujolais, Rhone Valley, Rioja and older vineyards in Australia
Types of Training 2. Replacement cone system - e.g. Guyot, lateral wires. Burgundy and Bordeaux. New producing canes used each year, one in single Guyot. Two in double Guoyot.
Types of Training 3. Cordon spur - trunk of vine developed horizontally with number of spurs left along its length. e.g. low cordon is Cordon de Royat in Champagne; high cordon Geneva Double Curtain
Types of Training 4. Parral/pergola - trained high of pergolas, bunches of grapes are head-high. Gives leaf cover in hot climates
Types of yield management 1. Number of vines per hectare
Training Purpose: to display foliage and fruit
Types of Training 1. 1. Bush Training/Gobelet. Spur pruned, warmer regions like Beaujolais, Rhone Valley, Rioja and older vineyards in Australia
Types of Training 2. Replacement cone system - e.g. Guyot, lateral wires. Burgundy and Bordeaux. New producing canes used each year, one in single Guyot. Two in double Guoyot.
Types of Training 3. Cordon spur - trunk of vine developed horizontally with number of spurs left along its length. e.g. low cordon is Cordon de Royat in Champagne; high cordon Geneva Double Curtain
Types of Training 4. Parral/pergola - trained high of pergolas, bunches of grapes are head-high. Gives leaf cover in hot climates
Types of yield management 1) Number of vines per hectare 2) Number of buds per vine 3) Number of shoots 4) Number of clusters to shoot 5) Number of berries to cluster. Dependent on flowering (weather), can't predict crop until flowering 6) Weight of berries 7) Green harvesting
Vineyard Calendar I Rest Period: Oct - drops leaves, main work in cellar; Nov - shoots lignify; autumn pruning; Dec - Continuation of November's work; Jan - main pruning; Feb - pruning continues; March - first sign of new growth; pruning stops
Vineyard Calendar II April - bud bursts; danger of frost; May - Shoot growth, leaves form; June {Most Critical Stage of the cycle of grape} - Flowering, fruit set
Vineyard Calendar III July - Green harvesting (if necessary); Aug - Veraison; grapes sell and change color, ripen. Prepare for vintage; Sept - Harvest/vintage
Ideal Conditions for Vine 1500 hrs of sunshine, 700 mm rainfall a year. Situated between 30 & 50 degree latitude
Main species for most vines Vitis Vinifera. However, phylloxera resistant rootstocks are used
Vine Diseases Powdery (oidium) and downy (peronospera) mildew; rot (grey rot); long-termal fungal disease; bactieral (worst is Pierre's Disease) and viral disease
Vine Pests Phylloxera, moths, spider mites, nermatodes (microscopic worms) birds, animals
Pruning Spur - short 2 or 3 bud spurs left on vine; cane - 1 or 2 longer canes, each with 8-12 buds left
Parts of vine 1. Roots/rootstock; 2. trunk; 3. cane/spur; 4. shoots; 5. flowers/fruit; 6. leaves
What soil is to vine Ability to absorb and drain water; heat retention properties, chemical characteristics (nutrients & minerals)
Green harvesting Done to reduce yields. Go through vineyards before grapes ripen and pick excess bunches.
Coulour flower does not set because of weather
Coulure flower does not set because of weather
# of Grapes on Label - EU Max of 2 but any number in descriptive text
# of Grapes on Label - non EU Most 2 or 3; Australia up to 5
Created by: bopark