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RT 140 Final

Radiation Protection Final Review

• Concerned with effects of ionizing radiation on living systems radiobiology
• What is the definition of threshold point above which an effect can be seen
• What is the definition of non threshold no amount of radiation is safe
• What graph is used for leukemia and breast cancer linear quadratic non threshold
• What graph is used for radiation therapy sigmoid
• Law of Bergonié and Tribondeau young cells, long M cycle cells, High metabolic activity cells, non specialized cells (stem)
• What source of information did the info on high radiation effects come from today atomic bomb survivors
• The linear non threshold graph implies that the biological response is directly proportional to the dose
• Hematopoietic dose is 1-10 Gy (100-1000 rads)
• GI syndrome dose is 6-10 Gy
• CNS syndrome dose is 50 Gy
• What is the order of the stages of ARS Prodromal, latent, manifest, recovery, and death
• What are examples of late somatic effects cataract, fibrosis, atrophy, loss of parenchyma cells, reduced fertility, sterility
• Dose for LD 50/30 3-4 Gy
• What is the timeline for organogenesis 10 days to 6 weeks
• What is the most important late somatic effect cancer
• What is the most radiosensitive trimester 1
• At 3 Gy or higher what type of curve is cataracts both stochastic and non stochastic
• Leukemia is found in which trimesters 2nd and 3rd
• The main effect from Chernobyl was thyroid cancer
• What is the type of radiation that causes thyroid cancer Iodine 131
• Mutations in genes and DNA is called spontaneous mutation
• Cancer and genetic defects are examples of ________ effects stochastic
• Lethal dose of ionizing radiation for humans is usually given as LD 50/60
• Which of the following systems is the most radiosensitive vital organ system in human beings hematopoietic
• When cells are exposed to sublethal doses of ionizing radiation, approximately ______ of radiation induced damage may be repaired over time, and about _______ is irreparable 90%, 10%
• What sets up the equivalent dose limits for tissues and organs such as skin, hands, and feet title 10
• Where is the info gathered for the ICRP UNSCEAR and NAS NCR-BEIR
• T/F imaging procedures should be explained to the patient in terms of professional medical terminology FALSE
• T/F radiographers should give patients the opportunity to ask questions, the radiographer should answer truthfully within ethical limits TRUE
• T/F Luminescence is used to quantify the intensity of light source or amount of light per unit surface TRUE
• T/F the FDA suggests that all hospital employees get a chest x-ray as a preemployment exam FALSE
• T/F the entrance dose to the patient is increased when a long SID is used FALSE
• T/F the higher grid ratio used, the higher the dose TRUE
• immobilization devices are designed to eliminate voluntary
• Which of the following is not an limiting device filter
• When the speed of the film screen systems is doubled, patient exposure is ______ by a factor of ______ reduced, half
• Sharper size restriction of an image is achieved by longer SID
• What are OSHAs responsibility monitors occupational radiation exposure and regulates training problem in the workplace
• NRC is aka Atomic energy commission
• NRC does not regulate or investigate imaging facilities TRUE
• FDA regulates the diagnostic x-ray equipment TRUE
• NRC oversees the nuclear energy industry
• Define effective dose limit limit expresses for whole body exposure partial body exposure and exposure to individual organs
• Who can operate the x-ray machine everyone
• ALARA level 1 and 2 1/10 to 3/10s
• What organization does the dose measurements NCRP
• skin erythema Skin reddening in 10-14 days is
• The tolerance dose is now known as MPD
• MPD Equation N-18
• Effects on offspring caused by irradiation of reproductive cells sperm and ova before conception is called mutagenesis
• Reduced fertility and sterility is considered nonstochastic late effects
• NCRP set all of the regulations according to the concept of ALARA
• According to ICRP, limited dose (ALARA) to patient is also referred to as optimization
• Which NCRP recommendation forms the basis of radiation exposure and dose limits report No. 116
• Effective dose limits does not include natural, background radiation and medical exposure
• What does the linear quadratic graph represent leukemia and breast cancer
• How to calc collective eff dose Population x dose(person mSv/50 manRem)
• Lifetime Effective AKA Cumulative effect Formula Age x 10mSv or 1rem
• RT badge readings are usually read Well below the maximum effective dose limits
• RT position in compared to other careers are not as dangerous
• The lifetime fatal risk as a radiation worker in no greater than 2.5%
• Which government agency recommends occupational and pubic dose limits ICRP
• Public continuous frequent expose .1 rem(1mSv)
• Effective dose of a Student under age 18 .1 rem (1mSv)
• The UNSCEAR and the NAS/NRC-BEIR supply information to the ICRP
• The ICRP makes recommendations on the Occupational and public dose limits
• What agency develops and enforce regulations to control Environmental radiation EPA
• Responsibilities of RSO 1. Develop radiation safety program 2. maintain radiation monitoring records for all personnel
• Main requirement to be an RSO Certified by NRC, Didactic courses, authorized medical physicist
• Shaped contact shield for PA are not recommended
• To eliminate voluntary patient movement adequate immobilization
• Beam limiting device diaphragm cone and cylinder
• Geometry unsharpness penumbra
• How to further limit the useful beam in cylinder and cone extension
• Collimator First set of shutters Reduce off focus or stem radiation and penumbra
• Collimator Second set of shutters confine radiographic beam to area of interest
• Unit for luminescent NIT
• Define luminescent Brightness of surface and quantifies intensity of a light source
• Patient skin surface should be at least ___ below the collimator 15 cm (Spacebar)
• Both alignment and length dimensions of the light beam must correspond within 2% SID
• Collimator housing contain a spacebar that can be no closer than 12cm
• Source to skin distance for Fluoro is stationary____ Mobile____ 15 inches, 12 inches
• For female patients gonads the use of a flat contact shield reduces the exposure by___% 50%
• Shape shields are used for AP OBL and LAT
• Male contact shielding reduces exposure 90%-95%
• Shield used for PA NONE
• Total filtration 2.5mm ALeq mm
• Wedge Filter used to provide uniform density of the foot dorsoplanter projection
• Which combination of technical exposure factors and filtration reduce patient radiation dose during rad exam higher kvp, lower mas, increased filtration.
• when the speed of the screen system doubles from 200 speed to 400 speed system the patient radiation exposure is reduced by 50%
• the use of a cone in fluoro is used for (X3) the doctor doesn't need to adapt to darkness, saves time, improves visual acuity and sees small structures.
• badges are recorded in mRem/hour
• Bucky Slot cover .25mm pb eq
• If an xray beam has a HVL of 3 to 4mm AL, what is the acceptable KVP range 80 - 100
• In Fluoro what is the time limit that temporarily interrupts the exposure 5min.
• What is the amount of maximum leakage radiation .001GY (100mRem)
• what measures skin dose TLD
• what is the limit for Fluoro 10 R per min
• Use Factor is also known as Beam Direction Factor.
• Doors have what thickness of Pb 1/32nd
• Women should begin mammo screening Above 50
• Source Shielding is for the Tube Housing.
• For a stationary/fixed fluoro machine has A short cord, Dead Man Switch
• Declared Pregnant PT's must Counseling, Unaffected Schedule, furnished additional monitor.
• What sensing device is most often used to measure skin dose directly TLD
• Estimated GSD for population of USA is .20mSv (20mRem).
• According to the ACR the abdominal radiologic exam that has requested after full consideration of the clinical status of patients including the possibility of pregnancy should Not be postponed, selectively scheduled.
• what is the annual occupational dose limit 5rem (50mSv)
• what is the limit for continuous or frequent exposures 0.1rem (1mSv).
• What is the cumulative dose limit (CumEfD) that has been established for the whole body of radiation workers lifetime effective dose Years X 1 Rem (Years X 10mSv).
• Occupational exposures for persons should be kept ALARA
• What expresses the relationship between distance and intensity (Quantity) of radiation and governs the dose received Inverse Square Law (ISL).
• If the distance from the xray target is doubled (x2), how much would the radiation intensity decrease decreased by 4.
• If the distance from the xray target is tripled (x3), how much would the radiation intensity decrease decreased by 9.
• how thick should the primary barrier be 1/16th inch Pb eq
• how thick should the secondary barrier be 1/32nd inch Pb eq
• how thick should the door be 1/32nd inch Pb eq.
• how thick should the window be 1.5mm Pb eq.
• how tall are the primary and secondary barriers 7ft tall.
• how tall are the clear leaded windows and their Pb eq 7ft tall and 0.3mm to 2mm Pb eq.
• how much do the primary and secondary barriers overlap 1/2 inch
• the exposure of the radiographer shall not exceed a MAX allowance of 1mSv (100rem) per week in actual practice in a well designed facility exposures should not exceed 0.02mSv (2mRem) per week.
• how many times should xrays scatter before reaching any area behind the control booth barrier Minimum 2 times.
• secondary barriers are primarily designed to protect the technologist and the general public from what type of radiation Scatter and Leakage Radiation.
• what is the MIN requirement for wearing Protective Eye Glasses 0.35mm Pb eq.
• what is the amount for Glasses With Wraparound Frames containing optically clear lenses 0.5mm Pb eq.
• the housing enclosing the xray tube must be constructed so that leakage radiation measured at 1 Meter (3.3 Feet) from the source should not exceed 100mR/hour (2.58 X 10^-5 C/kg).
• Where should the radiographer stand behind the radiologist.
• what is the Pb Eq for an protective Apron 0.5mm Pb Eq.
• what is the Minimum Pb Eq for Gloves 0.25mm Pb Eq.
• what is the Pb Eq for Thyroid Shields 0.5mm Pb Eq.
• For Mobile Units, how long should the cord be 2meters (6 feet).
• In Fluoro the Image hold is used to lessen patience dose.
• How should the radiographer stand from the patient to reduce the dose 90* angle
• who is able to operate a C-Arm (Fluoro Equipment) (X3) The Radiographer, Radiologist, The Physician whose training and experience in radiation safety.
• The fluoro timer switch is reset every 5min.
• what is the dose limit for localized areas such as the Skin, Hands, Feet 50Rem (500mSv).
• what makes up secondary radiation Leakage and Scatter.
• which of the shielding factors is measured in "mA-min/week" Workload (W).
• the amount of time the xray beam is directed at a certain wall (chest board for example) during the day would be used to calculate which of the shield factors Use Factor (U).
• A spot-film device protective curtain or sliding panel should be positioned between the Fluoroscopist and the patient to intercept which type of radiation Scattered Radiation Above The Table Top.
• What term is used to describe the "proportional amount of time in which the xray beam is energized or directed toward a particular barrier" Use Factor (U).
• When time spent in high radiation area is reduced or limited the occupational exposure to the technologist is Reduced Proportionally.
• For C-Arm device with similar fields of view, the dose rate to personnel located within one meter of the patient is Comparable or the same as radiation doses from routine (stationary) fluoroscopic equipment.
• what takes into account the fraction of the work week that the space beyond the barrier is occupied the Occupancy Factor (T).
• For uncontrolled areas, what is the MPED (Max Permitted Eq Dose) 20uSv (2mRem).
• For controlled areas, what is the MPED (Max Permitted Eq Dose) 1000uSv (100mRem).
• At a 90* angle to the primary xray beam, at a distance of 1 meter (3.3 feet), the scattered radiation is what fraction of the intensity of the primary beam 1/1000.
• Bucky slot shielding device of at least _____ must automatically cover the Bucky slot opening in the side of the xray table during a fluoro exam when the Bucky tray is positioned at the foot end of the table 0.25mm Pb Eq.
• How should occupational radiation exposure levels be kept Well below the annual effective dose.
• what is the occupational effective dose limit in any month 0.5mSv (50mRem).
• what does a Personal Dosimeter provide indication of working habits and conditions.
• T/F Personal Dosimeters do not protect the wearer from exposure (True)
• Personal monitoring devices record only the exposure received in what area Where it is worn.
• During routine radiographic procedures Personal Dosimeters should be attached to clothing at the collar level to approximate the location of maximal radiation doses to what? The Thyroid, The Head, The Neck.
• Healthcare facilities issues dosimeter devices when personnel might receive about what percent 1% of the annual occupational effective dose.
• which area in the radiology dept would a tech receive the lowest amount of radiation exposure Routine Radiographic Procedures.
• when performing fluoro procedures while wearing a lead apron it is recommended the film badge or other personal radiation monitor be worn at The Shirt Collar outside the lead apron.
• BAM! The shugg-a-dugg method!
• In which clinical situations would it be considered ESSENTIAL that the tech utilize two film badges or other personnel radiation monitoring devices (X2) Special Procedures and Declared Pregnancy (Only).
• which type of radiation would not be detected by a personnel monitoring device (film badge or optically stimulated phosphor) Alpha Particles.
• what metals are used in film badges and other personnel monitors to act as "Filters" (X2) Copper and Aluminum.
• what is the LOWEST or MIN detectable radiation that can be measured with a film badge that utilizes dental film 10mRem.
• the max detectable level of radiation a film badge (dental film) can record is 500rem.
• the MAIN purpose of the lead foil behind the film package is to reduce exposure to the film from Backscatter.
• when calculating a tech's actual radiation reading, the control badge readings are subtracted from the tech's film badge reading.
• Don't get beat. WOW
• The "Deep" reading report on a film badge or OSL personnel monitor report means that tissue at _____ was irradiated 1cm Deep.
• A "Shallow" reading was reported on a personnel dosimeter (film badge or OSL) which means that tissue ___ was irradiated 0.007cm.
• a dental film badge personnel radiation monitor is MOST effective for xray and gamma ray energies of 50 KeV.
• when laser light is incident on sensing material in an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSL) the material becomes luminescent (gives off light) in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received.
• which of the following chemicals function as the sensing material in a TLD dosimeter Lithium Fluoride (Li F) and Calcium Fluoride (CaF).
• which of the following chemicals function as the sensing material in a OSL dosimeter Aluminum Oxide (Al 2 O 3).
• which of the following radiation monitoring devices is NOT considered to be a "personnel monitoring device" and is in fact considered to be an "area radiation monitoring device" The Cutie Pie, The Proportional Counter, The Geiger-Muller (GM) detector.
• Excessive exposure to scatter radiation or poor working habits would make the image of the filter in dental film holder personal radiation monitor appear Fuzzy and Blurry.
• A "Densitometer" is used to obtain the radiation dose to a technologist using which type of personnel radiation monitor Dental Film Badge.
• with dental film type personnel monitors are used the optimum energy level for sensitivity is 50KeV. For photons that are higher or lower than 50KeV the sensitivity of the film badge Decreases.
• In a healthcare facility (hospital) a radiographers deep, eye, and shallow dose occupational exposure, as measured by radiation monitoring device, maybe found on which document Personnel Monitoring Report.
• which of the following radiations would be considered "high" linear energy transfer Alpha Particles.
• what filters are used for a Film badge Aluminum, Copper.
• what filter is used for OSL dosimeters Copper, Tin, Aluminum.
• what instrument is used to measure film density Densitometer.
• a densitometer measures the intensity of the light transmitted through a given area of the dosimetry film, and compares it with the intensity of the intensity of the light incident on the anterior side of the film this is called OPTICAL DENSITY.
• The Laser Readout is also known as the Glow Curve
• what is the most sensitive type of personnel dosimeter The Pocket Ionization Chamber (Pocket Dosimeter).
• T/F Humidity, Pressure, and normal temperature changes do not affect the TLD's (True).
• T/F Humidity, Pressure and normal temperature changes do not affect Film Badges (False).
• In a hospital, who receives and reads the personnel monitoring reports The RSO (radiation safety officer).
• What are some advantages of Film Badges monitor X-rays, gamma rays, discriminates between types of and energies of radiations.
Created by: danniegiirl