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Ultrasound is a common deep heating agent that transfers heat through conversion,
elevates tissue temperature to depths up to five centimeters, and uses inaudible acoustic mechanical vibrations of high frequency to produce thermal and nonthermal effects.
The main therapeutic effects of ultrasound include enhanced soft tissue healing, decreased inflammatory response, and decreased pain.
Thermal effects: Increase extensibility of collagen structures
Thermal effects: Decrease joint stiffness
Thermal effects: Pain relief
Thermal effects: Increase blood flow
Thermal effects: Decrease muscle spasm
Nonthermal effects: Stimulation of tissue regeneration
Nonthermal effects: Increase macrophage responsiveness
Nonthermal effects: Pain relief
Nonthermal effects: Soft tissue repair
Nonthermal effects: Increase blood flow
Nonthermal effects: Increase skin and cell membrane permeability
Indications Soft tissue repair
Indications Contracture
Indications Bone fracture
Indications Trigger point
Indications Dermal ulcer
Indications Scar tissue
Indications Pain
Indications Plantar wart
Indications Muscle spasm
Contraindications Over eyes
Contraindications Over pregnant uterus
Contraindications Over cemented prosthetic joint
Contraindications Impaired circulation
Contraindications Thrombophlebitis
Contraindications Impaired pain or temperature sensory deficits
Contraindications Over heart
Contraindications Over testes
Contraindications Over epiphyseal areas in children
Contraindications Infection
Contraindications Over malignancy
Ultrasound can be administered using a pulsed or continuous mode.
Continuous mode ultrasound is more effective in elevating tissue temperature where pulsed mode ultrasound conversely minimizes the thermal effects.
Duty cycle indicates the portion of treatment time that ultrasound is generated during the entire treatment.
continuous ultrasound generates constant ultrasound waves that correlates to a 100% duty cycle and produces thermal effects at a higher intensity and nonthermal effects at a lower intensity.
Pulsed ultrasound that generates ultrasound 20% of the treatment time correlates to a 20% duty cycle and will produce nonthermal effects.
A frequency setting of 1 MHz is used for heating of deeper tissues (up to five centimeters)
a setting of 3 MHz produces a higher temperature with a depth of penetration of less than two centimeters.
Apply the coupling medium to the treatment area or place the area to be treated under water if using the immersion technique.
Place the transducer on the treatment area or one half inch parallel to the treatment area under water and then turn on the machine.
During the moving technique the transducer should continuously move in a small circular pattern over the treatment area.
Maintain contact with the skin and stay within the treatment area.
An area two to three times the size of the transducer typically requires a duration of five minutes of treatment.
Intensity for continuous ultrasound is normally set between .5 to 2 W/cm2 for thermal effects.
Pulsed ultrasound is normally set between .5 to .75 W/cm2 with a 20% duty cycle for nonthermal effects.
Created by: micah10



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