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English (literature and language) Terminology

A name to describe things that have no physical qualities. Abstract Noun
A set of distinctive pronounciations that mark regional or social identity accent
a grammatical structure in which the subject is the actor of a sentence. E.g. the dog eats the bone. Active voice.
A word that modifies a noun or pronoun. Adjective/ Modifier
A word that modifies verbs, adjectives, conjunctions and prepositions. Adverb
repetition of the same sound in the initial position in a sequence of words. alliteration.
To refer to something indirectly or metaphorically. allusion
Lines of poetry of where the rhyme is ever other line (ABAB) Alternate rhyme.
A unit of poetic meter containing two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable --/ Anapest
A word or phrase no longer in current use Archaisms
Sounds that denote audible breath e.g. h Aspirants
A repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds Assonance
The omission of co-ordinating conjunctions as a feature of rhetorical style Asyndetic listing
The opinions expressed in the text Attitudes
A verb that precedes another verb e.g. I can go Modal/Auxilary Verbs
Term used to denote sounds made with both lips e.g. m, b Bilabials
A mid-line pause ceasura
A name that refers to a group of people, animals or things Collective noun
A name for every day objects common/concrete noun
An adjective made up of two words joined by a hyphen compound adjective
A deliberately elaborate metaphor Conceit
The associations attached to a word in addition to its dictionary definition Connotations
What the text is about Content
Things outside the text which may shape its meaning e.g. when it was written, and who wrote it Context
A two line verse (often rhyming) Couplet
A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllable /-- Dactyl
A mood used to express a statement Declarative
'the' Definite article
Terms used to denote words that rely on the context to be understood e.g. pass me that, there. Diectic
Language interaction with two or more participants Dialogue
The study of spoken language Discourse
A structure in which more than one negative is used Double negative
A verb that expresses an action rather than a state Dynamic Verb
The omission of sounds in connected speech Ellision
The omission of part of a sentence Ellipsis
A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on a closing sentence element. End-focus
Run-on lines Enjambement
A word that replaces a term seen by society as taboo or unpleasant Euphemism/ Expletive
A mood that expresses strong emotions Exclamatory
Where the rhyme looks like it should rhyme but the sound is not exactly the same. Eye Rhyme
Words used when hesitating in speech, um, er Fillers
A change in the structure of the sentence to place emphasis on an opening sentence element Foregrounding
The structure and shape of the text Form
Sounds where air escapes through a small passage e.g. f, v Fricatives
Exaggeration used to heighten feeling and intensity Hyperbole
A unit of poetic meter containing one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable -/ Iambic
A mood that expresses a command Imperative
'a' Indefinite Article
Where the rhyming sound occurs within a line of verse Internal rhyme
A mood expressing a question Interrogative mood
The quality or tone of the voice in speech Intonation
To place two or more things side by side Juxtaposition
A group of words joined by similarities Lexical set
The term used to describe the vocabulary of a language Lexis
A deliberate understatement Litotes
A description which does not compare one thing with another but actually becomes the other e.g. the trees danced in the wind Metaphor
The point of view of the text i.e. first, second or third person Mode of address
A term used to describe consonants produced with an open nasal passage e.g. m,n Nasals
Any variety that does not conform to the standard form as used by society Non-standard lexis
A naming word noun
An eight line verse octet
The term used to denote words that imitate sounds onomatopoeia
A study of spelling and the ways letters are used in language Orthography
The use of apparently contradictory words in a phrase Oxymoron
Non-verbal communication using gestures, posture and facial expressions paralinguistic features
The patterning of pairs of sounds, words or structures to create a sense of balance Parallelism
A grammatical structure in which the subject and object can change places in order to alter the focus of a sentence e.g. the bone was eaten by the dog Passive Voice
When the environment mirrors emotions Pathetic Fallacy
A unit of poetic meter containing five feet (10 syllables in total) Pentameter
A device in which the non-human is given personal and human qualities e.g. the trees danced in the wind Personification
A poem of 14 lines, divided into an octet and a sestet, written in iambic pentameter, rhyming abbaabbba cdecde (sestet may vary) Petrarchan/ Italian sonnet
Sounds which release a sudden burst of air e.g. p,b,t plosives
A word that shows relationships between nouns or pronouns e.g. on Preposition
A word that replaces a noun Pronoun
A name of a distinctive person, place or other unique reference Proper nouns
The use of pitch, volume, pace and rhythm to draw attention to key elements of spoken language Prosodic features
The reason the text has been produced e.g. to entertain, inform, persuade etc. Purpose
A four-line verse Quatrain
An English accent which has a high social status and is not connected to a specific region Received Pronunciation
The correction of a mistake or misunderstanding in conversation Repair
Saying the same thing more than once Repetition
The pattern of syllables and stresses within poetry Rhythm
A poem with a circular structure which begins and ends similarly Rondo
A six-line verse Sestet
A poem of 14 lines, divided into three quatrains and a couplet, written in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg Shakespearean/ English Sonnet
Consonant sounds articulated with a hissing sound e.g. s,z Sibilants
A device which directly compares two things using like or as e.g. the tress swayed in the wind like dancers Simile
A unit of poetic meter containing two stressed syllables // Spondee
The division of lines in a poem, also called a verse Stanza
Verbs that express states of being or processes Stative Verbs
The exaggerated phoneme in any particular word Stress
A word that emphasizes the extremes e.g. best, worst Superlatives
The beats or rhythm in a line of verse Syllable
A device in which a word or phrase represents something else Symbolism
Using conjunctions to join clauses Syndetic Listing
The deliberate alteration of the structure of words in a sentence Syntax Inversion
An interrogative structure attached to the end of a sentence which expects a reply e.g. isn’t it Tag Question
A unit of poetic meter containing four feet (8 syllables in total) Tetrameter
The recurring ideas and images in a text Themes
The style or voice the text is written in e.g. excites, emotional Tone
Transcription A written record of spoken language, which can use symbols and markings to illustrate the distinctive nature of speech Transcription
A unit of poetic meter containing three feet (6 syllables in total) Trimeter
Listing of three items Tripling
A unit of poetic meter containing one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable /- Trochee
The organization of speakers’ contributions to a conversation Turn Taking
A stretch of spoken language used in stead of ‘sentence’ when discussing spoken language Utterance
Words that express states, actions or processes Verbs
The type of poem e.g. sonnet, lyric, ballad, ode, narrative poem etc. Verse Type
The words used to name or refer to people when talking to them Vocatives
The turning point in a sonnet Volta
Created by: PhizB