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Chapter 13 Vocab

ALARA The principle that states that all radiation exposure to humans should be limited to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable.
Chromosomes Microscopic bodies that contain the genes.
Coulombs per kilogram (C/kg) The SI unit for measuring radiation exposure, specifying the quantity of electrical charge.
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Dominate Genes that are "chosen".
Equivalent dose The absorbed dose multiplied by the quality factor.
Sievert The SI unit used to measure dose equivalents.
Roentgen Measurement of radiation intensity in the air.
Genes Determiners of heredity that are made of DNA
Gray The SI unit for dose measurement
Rad Equal to 100 ergs absorbed per gram of tissue.
Quality Factor A number assigned to each type of radiation, based upon its relative biologic effect as compared to x-rays.
Focus-skin distance FSD
Entrance Skin Exposure (ESE) Patient dose in radiography that is usually calculated according to the exposure level at the skin.
Stochastic Radiation effects that are random and unpredictable. Severity is unrelated to dose.
Free radicals Molecules or parts of molecules that occur as the result of ionization.
Enzymes Biological chemicals that repair damage to cell membranes and DNA.
Nonstochastic Radiation effects that are typically of relatively high doses. The severity of the effect is proportional to the dose.
Erythema Reddening of the skin
Recessive Genes that are not selected.
Mutations Genetic changes
Gonads Reproductive glands
Gonad shields lead shields that prevent unnecessary radiation to the reproductive organs.
Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) A dose measuring devise that gives off light when heated.
Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) A dosimeter that uses aluminum oxide as a radiation detector.
ionizing radiation produces positively and negatively charged particles when passing through the body.
radiation protection the measures taken to safeguard patients, personnel, and the public from unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation.
radiation weighting factor (WR) is assigned to each type of radiation, based on the variation in biologic damage that is produced when an individual receives exposure from different types of radiation.
Rem Radiation equivalent man, is the unit of equivalent dose in the conventional system.
source-skin distance (SSD) the distance from the radiation source to the patient.
Absorbed dose (D) the amount of energy (x-ray) per unit mass absorbed by the irradiated tissue.
Biologic damage destructive interactions of ionizing radiation occur at the same atomic level, leading to cellular damage
effective dose (EfD) limiting system used to calculate the upper limits of occupational exposure permissible.
Created by: hollieritter