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Advanced Rudiments

A set of terms for the Royal Conservatory of Music's Advanced Rudiments exam.

a tempo return to the original tempo
accelerando becoming quicker
accent a stressed note
ad libitum at the liberty of the performer
adagio a slow tempo
agitato agitated
alla, all' in the manner of
allargando broadening, becoming slower
allegretto a little slower than allegro
allegro fast
andante moderately slow; walking pace
andantino a little faster than andante
animato lively, animated
arco played with the bow
assai much, very
attacca proceed without break
ben, bene well
bewegt moving
brillante brilliant
cantabile in a singing style
cluster a chord consisting of at least three adjacent notes of a scale
col, coll', colla, colle with
comodo at a comfortable, easy tempo
con with
con brio with vigour, spirit
con espressione with expression
con fuoco with fire
con grazia with grace
con moto with movement
con pedale with pedal
con sordino with mute
crescendo, cresc. becoming louder
da capo, D.C. from the beginning
dal segno, D.S. from the sign
decrescendo, decresc. becoming softer
diminuendo, dim. becoming softer
dolce sweet, gentle
dolente sad
e, ed and
espressivo, espress. expressive, with expression
fermata a pause; hold the note or rest longer than its written value
fine the end
forte loud
fortepiano loud then suddenly soft
fortissimo very loud
giocoso humorous, jocose
grandioso grand, grandiose
grave slow and solemn
grazioso graceful
langsam slow
largamente broadly
larghetto not as slow as largo
largo very slow
legato smoothly
léger light, lightly
leggiero light
lentement slowly
lento slow
l'istesso tempo the same tempo
loco return to normal register
ma but
maestoso majestic
mano destra, M.D. right hand
mano sinistra, M.S. left hand
marcato, marc. marked or stressed
martellato strongly accented, hammered
mässig moderate, moderately
meno less
meno mosso less movement, slower
mesto sad, mournful
mezzo forte moderately loud
mezzo piano moderately soft
mit with
mit Ausdruck with expression
M.M. Maelzel's metronome
moderato at a moderate tempo
modéré at a moderate tempo
molto much, very
morendo dying, fading away
mouvement tempo, motion
non not
non troppo not too much
ottava, 8va the interval of an octave; play note(s) one octave above the written pitch
pedale, ped. pedal
pesante weighty, with emphasis
piano soft
pianissimo very soft
più more
più mosso more movement (quicker)
pizzicato, pizz. pluck the string instead of bowing
poco little
poco a poco little by little
polychord a combination of two or more different chords
presto very fast
prestissimo as fast as possible
primo, prima first; the upper part of a duet
quartal chord a chord built on a series of 4ths
quasi almost, as if
rallentando, rall. slowing down
repeat sign repeat the music within the double bar lines
ritardando, rit. slowing down gradually
ritenuto, riten. suddenly slower, held back
rubato a flexible tempo using slight variations of speed to enhance musical expression
scherzando playful
schnell fast
secondo, seconda second; second or lower part of a duet
sehr very
semplice simple
sempre always, continuously
senza without
7th chord a chord consisting of a root, a 3rd, a 5th, and a 7th
sforzando a sudden strong accent of a single note or chord
simile continue in the same manner as has just been indicated
slur connects several notes; play the notes legato
sonore sonorous
sostenuto, sost. sustained
sotto voce soft, subdued, under the breath
staccato sharply detached
strepitoso boisterous, noisy
stringendo, string. pressing, becoming faster
subito, sub. suddenly
tacet be silent
tempo speed at which music is performed
tempo primo (tempo I) return to the original tempo
tenuto held, sustained
tie connects two notes; hold for the combined value of the tied notes
tranquillo quiet, tranquil
tre corde three strings; release the left pedal
triad a chord consisting of a root, a 3rd, and a 5th
troppo too much
tutti a passage for the ensemble
una corda one string; depress the left pedal
vite fast
vivace lively, brisk
vivo lively
volta time
volta subito, v.s. turn the page quickly
Created by: sashby



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