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Psy Learning Ch 2

Research Methods

variable characteristic of a person, place or thing that can change/vary over time or from one situation to another
independent variable aspect of an experiment that systematicly varies across the different conditions in the experiment. The dependent variable is what is measured in an experiment
dependent variable the aspect of an experiment that is allowed to vary freely to see if it is affected by changes in the independent variable.
functional relationship relationship between changes in an independent variable and dependent variables.
stimulus any event that can potentially influence behavior
Response particular instance of a behavior
Overt behavior behavior that has the potential for being directly observed by an individual other than the one performing the behavior. 2.behavior that is subjectively perceived and is not publicly observable
appetitive stimulus event that an organism will seek out
aversive stimulus event that an organism with avoid
Establishing operation procedure that affects appetitiveness or aversiveness of a stimulus
deprivation prolonged absence of an event that tends to increase the appetitiveness of that event
satiation the prolonged exposure to/comsumption of an event which tends to decrease the appetitiveness of that event.
temporal contiguity extent to which events occur close together in time. IE Thunder & lightening
spatial contiguity events are situated close to each other in space. Affect learning
contingency predictive relationship between two events, such that the occurrence of one event predicts the probable occurrence of another.
rate of response is the frequency with which a response occurs in a certain period of time
cumulative recorder a classic device that means measures the total number of responses over time and provides a graphic depiction of the rate of behavior.
intensity a behavior is the force or magnitude of the behavior
duration the length of time that an individual repeatedly or continuously performs a certain behavior
speed measure of how quickly or slowly a behavior occurs, or the rapidity with which one progresses through some type of distance.
latency the length of time required for the behavior to begin
interval recordings the measurement of thether or not a behavior occurs within a series of continuous intervals
time-sample recording one measures whether or not a behavior occurs within a series of discontinuous intervals
topography the physical form of the behavior
descriptive research describing the behavior and the situation within which it occurs
Naturalistic observation systematic observation and recording of behavior in its natural environment.
case study approach intensive examination of one or a few individuals.
control group design individuals are randomly assigned to either an experimental/treatment group or a control group; individuals assigned to the experimental group are exposed to a certain manipulation/treatment, whereas those assigned to the control group are not
comparative design type of control group design in which different species constitute one of the independent variables.
control group designs page 69
Control Group design Limitations 3. results are often analyzed & interpreted only at the end of the experiment rather than during the experiment
simple subject design requres only one or a few subjects to conduct an entire experiment.
simple comparison design (AB design) behavior in a baseline condition is compared to behavior in a treatment condition. DOESN'T ALLOW to assess this possibility and thus constitutes a poor experimental design.
baseline normal frequency of the behavior that occurs before some intervention
major problem does not control for the possibility that some other event occurred at the same time that the treatment was implemented & it was this other event that caused the change in the behavior
reversal design single-subject design that involves repeated alterations between a baseline period and a treatment period
Reversal Design Strength STRENGTH: 1. ideal for determining the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for one person. 2. used to assess the effectiveness of more than one treatment
Reversal Design Weakness The behavior must revert to its orginal baseline freq. when the treatment is withdrawn; otherwise it will be impossible to determine if the treatment has had an effect.
Reversal Design Weakness 2. it may be ethically inappropriate to remove a teatment once some improvement was obtained.
Multiple baseline design treatment is instituted at successive points in time for two or more persons, settings, or behaviors.
Created by: sdekar