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data collection

Observation Advantages: Provides detailed, context related information
Observation Advantages Permits collection of information on items not mentioned in an interview
Observation Advantages May be particularly effective to collect behavioral data
Observation Disadvantages: May be time consuming
Observation Disadvantages Confidentiality issues
Observation Disadvantages Potential for observer bias
Observation Disadvantages Potential for the presence of the observer to influence the observed situation
Observation Disadvantages Controls must be used to limit environmental influences from skewing data
Observation Disadvantages Recordings of the observations must be systematic and standardized
Interview Advantages: Permits clarification of answers:
Interview Advantages: Higher response rate than written questionnaires
Interview Advantages Suitable for literate and illiterate subjects
Interview Disadvantages: High labor costs
Interview Disadvantages Presence of the interviewer can influence responses
Interview Disadvantages Interviewers may require special training
Using existing information Advantages: Cost effective since data already exists
Using existing information Advantages Allows examination of trends over time
Using existing information Disadvantages: Confidentiality issues
Using existing information Disadvantages Information may be incomplete or imprecise
Using existing information Disadvantages Data is not always accessible or in a complete form
Using existing information Disadvantages Available records may not accurately represent sample
Written questionnaire Advantages: Permits anonymity and therefore may result in more valid responses
Written questionnaire Advantages Less expensive than more labor intensive data collection techniques such as interviewing
Written questionnaire Advantages Able to minimize bias by phrasing questions differently with different respondents
Written questionnaire Advantages Provides a form of standardization
Written questionnaire Disadvantages: Cannot be used with illiterate subjects
Written questionnaire Disadvantages Low response rates
Written questionnaire Disadvantages Questions may be misinterpreted
Written questionnaire Disadvantages Need homogenous group if response rate is low
Historical research: Investigating, recording, analyzing, and interpreting the events of the past for the purpose of discovering generalizations that are helpful in understanding the past, the present, and to a limited extent, anticipating the future.
Descriptive research: Recording, analyzing, and interpreting conditions that exist. Descriptive research involves some type of comparison or contrast and attempts to discover relationships between existing and non-manipulated variables.
Experimental research: A description of what will result when certain variables are carefully controlled or manipulated. The focus is on variable relationships.
Created by: micah10