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Oncology Terminology

QuestionAnswer
Benign neoplasm: An abnormal cell growth that is usually slow growing and harmless; it closely resembles the adjacent tissue composition.
Cancer (malignancy, tumor, carcinoma): Cancer can be defined as groups of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation with mutation and spreading of the abnormal cells. The etiology is based on the type and location of the cancer.
The most common causes of cancer include cigarette smoking, diet and nutrition, chemical agents, physical agents, environmental causes, viral causes, and genetics.
Dysplasia: The process of normal change in shape, size, and type of normal cells.
Hyperplasia: An increase in cell number that may be normal or abnormal.
Malignant neoplasm: An abnormal cell growth that grows uncontrollably, invades and destroys adjacent tissues, and may metastasize to other sites and systems of the body.
Metaplasia: A change in a cell from one type to another that may be normal or abnormal.
Tumor (neoplasm): A tumor is an abnormal new growth of tissue that increases the overall tissue mass. Tumors are benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) as well as primary or secondary. Primary tumors form from cells that belong to the area of the tumor.
Secondary tumors grow from cells that have metastasized (spread) from another affected area within the body. Tumor classification is defined by cell type, tissue of origin, amount of differentiation, benign versus malignant, and anatomic site
Bone Mineral Regulating Agents Action: Bone mineral regulating agents attempt to enhance and maximize bone mass along with preventing bone loss or rate of bone resorption. Typical agents can include estrogens, calcium and vitamin D, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and anabolic agents.
Bone Mineral Regulating Agents Indications: Paget's disease, osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, rickets, hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia
Bone Mineral Regulating Agents Side effects: (agent dependent) gastrointestinal distress, dyspepsia, dysphagia, anorexia, bone pain, cardiac arrhythmias
Bone Mineral Regulating Agents Implications for PT: Patients with bone mineralization deficit are at risk for fracture and side effects from drug therapy.
Bone Mineral Regulating Agents Examples: Estrogens: Premarin (conjugated estrogen);
Bone Mineral Regulating Agents Examples Calcium and vitamin D: Tums (calcium carbonate), Calderol (calcifediol); Bisphosphonates: Fosamax (alendronate sodium), Boniva (ibandronate); Calcitonin: Cibacalcin (human calcitonin)
Therapists must be aware of potential side effects and should attempt to augment drug therapy through ambulation and other weight bearing activities that stimulate bone formation.
Created by: micah10