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other systems 8


hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon located below the thalamus and cerebral hemisphere.
hypothalamus connects to the pituitary gland through the infundibular or pituitary stalk.
hypothalamus through its impact on the pituitary gland is responsible for. regulation of the autonomic nervous system (body temperature, appetite, sweating, thirst, sexual behavior, rage, fear, blood pressure, sleep) and other endocrine glands through its impact on the pituitary gland
pituitary gland is normally the size of a pea and is located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus.
pituitary gland is considered the most important part of the endocrine system since it releases hormones that regulate several other endocrine glands.
pituitary gland “master gland” is influenced by factors such as seasonal changes or emotional stress.
pituitary gland secretes endorphins that act on the nervous system and reduce a personʼs sensitivity to pain.
pituitary gland also works as a catalyst for the testes and ovaries to create sex hormones.
thyroid gland is located on the anterior and lateral surfaces of the trachea immediately below the larynx
thyroid gland is shaped like a “bow tie” or “butterfly” with two halves (lobes); a right lobe and a left lobe joined by an isthmus.
thyroid produces thyroxine and triiodothyronine that act to control the rate at which cells burn the fuel from food.
An increase in thyroid hormones will increase the rate of the chemical reactions within the body.
There are four parathyroid glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroidʼs lateral lobes.
parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone which functions as an antagonist to calcitonin and is important for the maintenance of normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate.
Parathyroid hormone increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bones to the blood.
Secretion of parathyroid hormone is stimulated by hypocalcemia and inhibited by hypercalcemia
. Normal clotting, neuromuscular excitability, and cell membrane permeability are dependent on normal calcium levels.
The two adrenal glands are located on top of each kidney;
the outer portion of adrenal glands is called the adrenal cortex and the inner portion is called the adrenal medulla.
The adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla secrete different hormones.
The adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids that will regulate water and sodium balance, the bodyʼs response to stress, the immune system, sexual development and function, and metabolism.
The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine that increases heart rate and blood pressure when there is an increase in stress.
The pancreas is located in the upper left quadrant of the abdominal cavity extending from the duodenum to the spleen.
The pancreas includes both endocrine and exocrine tissues.
The pancreas; The islets of Langerhans are the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas.
The pancreas; Alpha cells produce glucagon and beta cells produce insulin.
The pancreas; hormones work in combination to ensure a consistent level of glucose within the bloodstream and properly maintain stores of energy within the body.
The ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity on each side of the uterus.
The ovaries provide estrogen and progesterone that contribute to regulation of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.
Estrogen is secreted by the ovarian follicles which are responsible for the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics such as breast development and the cycles of the female reproductive system.
Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum and functions to maintain the lining of the uterus at a level necessary for pregnancy.
The testes are located in the scrotum between the upper thighs.
The testes secrete androgens (most importantly testosterone) that regulate body changes associated with sexual development and support the production of sperm.
Created by: micah10
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