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General Info PTA

Incomplete SCI A lesion to the spinal cord with only a partial severance. There may be some motor and some sensory or both below the injury.
Complete SCI Alesion where there is no sensory or motor function below the lesion.
What is the difference between tetraplegia and paraplegia? Tetraplegia-cervical spine and down. Paraplegia-thoracic, lumbar, or sacral spine and down.
What is a full thickness skin graft? Contains both epidermis and the dermis.
What is a split thickness graft? Contains the epidermis and some of the dermis.
What is Ankylosing Spondlitis and its treatment? Inflamation of the spine. Trweat with patient education, extension and rotation of the spine.
Name the signs and treatments of Parkinsons disease. Signs:mask face, tremor, rigidity, falls increase. Treatment works on balance and recipricating movements.
Why is trendelenburg Position contraindicated with TBI's? It will cause craniel pressure to increase, decrease responsiveness, cause severe headache, vomiting, and increased blood pressure and pulse and may cause pt to be irritable.
What E-stim would you use for pain controll? TENS
What E-stim would you use for drug delivery? Ionto
What E-stim would you use to produce muscle contraction? NMES, Russian
What temp should be used on an MS pt that is using a pool? Cold, not hot. (hot will fatique the muscles)
Patient has a problem with balance, what test should be used? Ronbergs Test
What can you do to stop pistoning during gait. Add more socks.
How do you measure leg length? ASIS to distal medial mallelous.
What does Chrons disease affect? small intestines
Describe a positive Babinski reflex. Dorsi flexion of the great toe with fanning of the other toes when the lateral sole is stimulated. (this is common with spastic hypertonia.)
Describe the asymetrical tonic neck reflex. Strongest influence in supine or sitting. Also known as fencing pose. When you turn infants head to side the opposite upper extremity will flex @ the opposite elboe, while upper extremity on same side will extend @ elboe.
Contraindications for traction Impaired cognitive status, spinal tumors, spinal infections, spondylolisthesis, RA, osteoporosis, lumbar traction with pregnant female.
What causes wrist drop? Radial nerve injury.
Describe a stage 4 pressure ulcer. A full thickness skin loss with extensive destruction, tissue necrosis or damage to muscle, bone or supporting structures. example(tendon, joint capsule)
Describe a stage 3 pressure ulcer A full thickness skin loss that involves damage or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue that may extend down to but not through, underlying fascia. The ulcer presents clinicallty as a deep crater with or without undermining adjacent tissue.
Describe a stage 2 pressure ulcer A partial thickness skin loss that involves the epidermis and/or deris. The ulcer is superficial and presents clinically as an abrasion, a blister or a shallow crater.
Describe a stage 1 pressuer ulcer An observable pressure related alteration of intact skin whose indicators as compared to an adjacent or opposite area on the body may include changes in skin color, temperature, stiffness or sensation.
What is the MORO reflex? occurs with sudden change in position of the head in relation to the trunk, if you you drop the patient backward from the sitting position the response is extension, abduction of the UEs, hand opening & crying followed by flexion, and adduction of the arm
Name some post-op precautions for a total hip replacement when a postlateral approch is used. Use abduction pillow, avoid hip abduction, avoid hip medial rotation, avoid hip flexion past 90, do not pivit towards surgical side, dont cross legs when sitting or lying down, use pillow between legs when in side lying.
What are the positions for draining the upper lobes? upper apical lobe anterior=lean back against puillow, upper apical lobe posterior= lean forward against pillow, anterior segment=lay supine, posterior segment=lay on opposite side head and shoulders elevated.
Indication for ultrsound increase the extensibility of collegen fibers in the tendons and joint capsules, reduce muscle spasms, modulate pain.
Descri be superficial partial thickness burns. involves epidermis and some of dermis, very painful with blisters, heals with minimal to no scarring.
Describe subdermal burns. often requires surgical intervention due to possible involvment of muscle and bone.
Describe deep partial thickness burns. destruction of epidermis and most of dermis, discolored with broken blisters and edema, damage to nerve endings therefore mini mod pain, hypertrophic scars and keloids.
Describe full thickness burns destruction of epidermis and some damage to subcutaneous fat layer, eschar formation, min pain, requires skin graft, suseptable to infection.
When doing aquadics for pregnant women a pt can not do what? Pt should avoid high temp pools due to increasing BP and body temp. Pt should perform low level excercise.
Describe the symetrical tonic neck reflex. can ifluence ability to assume the quadruped positions and ability to crawl. with child in prone and neck extended, both UEs will extend and LE will flex, if neck is flexed UEs will flex and LE will extend.
What is another name for direct current? Galvanic current.
Most moisture absorbent dressing? alginates
If leg is in full knee extension throughout swing phase you would compensate by? hip hiking
What lung volume increases with COPD? RV=residual volume
What can happen if prosthesis is too long? Abducted gait, circumducted gait, vaulting, Excessive knee flexion in stance.
Posterior leaf spring built in DF assist, not usefull in severe spasticity.
Patient is sidelying positioned in Obers test what is tight? IT Band and Tensor Fascia Latae
Which tendon do you check to see if transfemoral prosthesis is too tight? Adductor logus tendon
What can an (PTA) aid do? Anything under the PT that doesnt requre clinical problem solving, or decision making.
If heart rate and BP decrease, what do you do with exercise? Stop excercise, let patient rest and then reasses vitals.
What is the difference between a strain and a sprain? Strain=muscle Prain=ligament.
What are some signs and symptoms of a Vertebral-Basilar Artery Stroke Loss of consciousness, hemi or quadruplegia, comatose, dysphagia, aphagia.
If prosthesis causes redness what do you do and who do you contact? if it occurs right after using prosthesis for the first time it's normal. If its later advise pt to d/c use, contact PT who will usually exam pt and contact Prosthetologist.
What is the minimal mat balance activity you can do before standing? The sequence is quadruped, sitting on heels, kneeling, half kneeling, modified plantigrade.
What assistive device do you use with MCP surgery and THR? rolling walker with plateform attachments.
How do you increase a productive cough? Apply pressure below rib cage when patient is trying (similar to hymlic manuver)
What is tight if you get more knee extension with supine than in long sitting? Hamstrings
Patient had sensation of walking on cloud or cotton Peripheral neuropathy
When you exercise, what is normal change? Systolic increases, Diastolic stays the same.
Name some characteristics of neuropathic Ulcers (Diabetic) plantar surface of foot, callus rim, good granulation, no drainage, little or no pain, faint or absent pedal pulse, shiny dry cracked skin, cold to the tough.
Name some characteristics of venous insufficiency ulcers. medial leg, irregular shape, not a deep wound, mild pain, normal pedal pulse, limb swelling, flaky, dry brownish skin.
Name some characteristics of arterial insufficiency ulcers Lateral toes, toes web spaces, dorsal foot, smooth edges, no granulation, usually deep wounds, severe pain, diminished petal pulse, thin shiny skin, hair loss, yellow nails.
What is autonomic dysreflexia and its treatment? occurs with pts with lesions above T6, causes increase in BP, headache, bluured vision, stuffy nose, seating, goose bumps below lesion & flushed appearance above lesion. TX=check catheter, then bowels for impaction, keep pt in sitting.
Describe active and passive insufficiency of gastroc Active=plantarflexion and knee flexion. Passive=dorsiflexion, knee extension.
What test would you use to see if pt had thoracic outlet syndrome? Roo's test (chicken dance)
Pt exhibits hyperemia following cold treatment. What do you do? D/C tx, cold should cause opposite reaction.
What are benefits of prone postioning? Encourages extension of the limbs. Good position for disc buldging.
What are not benefits of the prone position? Sometimes less tolerable position. Harder for elderly to obtain this position.
What happens if abdominals relax? Trunk falls forward and the hip extensors must then kick in to help to bring the body erect.
Weak PF shows in what stage of gait? Heel off or preswing.
6 weeks post spinal cord fracture, why is there pain at the fracture site? healing pain being centralized.
What muscle is weak if trunk leans forward? abdominals and/or quads.
What area do you strengthen to correct scissoring gait? weak abductors or tight adductors.
Trouble initiating steps, What do you strengthen? hip flexors
If pt has difficulty swallowing following PT who do you contact? speech therapist
What do you wear when in contact with TB patient? use airborne precautions, use respiratory mask.
If air bubbles during underwater US, what happens? treatment is not effective.
Pt has large red spot on back following hot pack use, but wants some temp same temp next treatment, what do you do? document redness, contact pt next day to check status of the area, next visit use more towels or d/c hot pack tx depending on the skin.
If pt has a transfemoral prothesis, what activitey is most difficult? transfemoral amputations cause a lot of energy expenditure and balance so most activities are hard but walking on uneven terrain is the most difficult.
Which response is first in children optical righting, neck righting, or extension protection? 1. Neck righting. 2 Optical righting. 3 protective extension.
What muscle is responsible for hip hiking? Quadratus Lumborum.
To gain shoulder abduction, what can be done to compensate? Leaning to opposite side.
Where do you find femoral pulse? At the femoral triangle slightly lateral and anterior to the inguinal crease; groin area.
What is contraindicated with exercise in a pregnant women? Diastis recti
What muscles do you tell a pt to contract while performing PPT? abdominals.
On a goniometer which is the distal arm and which is the proximal arm? distal=moveble proximal=stationary
A pt is doing a wall push up and you notice winging of the scapula, what is weak? SERRATUS ANTERIOR.
How do you position the head to break up ATNR? Midline.
What 2 muscles do you strengthen for shoulder subluxation? Deltoid, supraspinatus.
What is the rule of nines? Head & neck=9%, Ant trunk=18%, Post trunk=18%,Genital area 1&, unilatera ant UE 4.5%, unilateral post UE=4.5%, unilateral ant LE=9%, unilateral post LE=9%.
What are normal heart rate values for infants, children, and adults? Infants=100-130 bpm, children=80-100 bpm, adult=60-100 bpm
What is the capsular pattern of the hip? Flexion, internal rotation, abduction.
What is the capsular pattern of the glenohumoral joint? External rotation, abduction, flexion, internal rotation.
How do you clean a wound with 60% granulation? saline solution.
Diabetic pt with fruity breath, rapid breathing, dry skin. What do you do? seek immediate medical assistance.
Diabetic pt with normal breath, shallow breathing, sweating, what do ypou do? offer candy or OJ.
What is orthostatic hypertension and its tx? inabilaty to go from supine to standing position. causes dizziness, nausea, blacking out sensation, and light headedness. tx: use tilt table and constantly monitor vital sighns.
How do you drain middle sections of lungs? left lingula=legs elevated lie on right side. middle lobe=elevate legs lie on left side.
What dressing would you select for a heavily draing wound? -foam, -alginate, -absorbent pad.
Describe superficial burns -involves only epidermis, -red coloration, -slight edema, heals with relativley no scarring, -example sunburn.
Describe GBS results in motor weakness in a distal to proximal progression, sensory impairment, and possible repiratory paralysis.-PT should focus on PROM, postioning, and light exercise, acute stage should avoid over exertion and fatque and to avoid exacerbation.
Describe Cauda Equina Injuries -an injury considered a peripheral nerve injury.-characterized by flaccidity, areflexia, and i mpairment of bowel and bladder function. -occurs below L1 where the long nerve roots transcend.
Spinal cord level C6 what do you strengthen for transferes? Biceps and other UE muscles
Indications for iontophoresis -pain management, -anti inflamation, -sear lysis, -enhanced healing.
What are some indications for cryotherapy? -pain management, -anti inflamation, edema controll, decrease of muscle guarding/spasm.,-spasticity management.
How do you test the Glut Max? prone with knees flexed.
Describe Brown-Sequard's Syndrome -lesion that causes weakness or paralysis on one side of the body and loss of sensation on the contralateral side of the body.-usually caused by a stab wound.
Describe Anterior Cord Syndrome -an incomplete lesion that causes loss of motor function and pain and temp below the level of injury. -usually caused by cervical flexion that compresses on the anterior horn or anterior spinal artery.
Which muscle is being stretched during the Finkelstein test? Abductor pollicis longus. -extensor pollicis brevis.
Describe the tonic labyrinthine reflex -extensor tone maximal in the supine position and flexor tone in the prone position. -It may be impossible for the patien to turn sidelying from the supine position because extensor tone limits flexion of shoulder or hip on one side.
How can you tell if there is any infection beneath a callus? the color
What position do you put a pregnant lady in for exercize? left sidelying.
What position is ideal to avoid a hip flexion contrature? prone
In long sitting, what muscle won't inhibit your stretch? quads, abs.
What is the rooting reflex? -a primitive reflex present in premature infants ad disappearing by 3 months of age in which the infant turns the head towards the side of the face thatr is stimulated, and opens its mouth.
Name the stages of dying -Denial, -Anger, -Barganing, -Depression, Acceptance.
Afferent vs Efferent Afferent is sensory, while Efferent is motor.
Created by: dwylinmiller