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Exam 4: Africa

at the center of Pangea;breakup of Pangea- Eurasia and Godwanaland;Africa's move wasn't as drastic,very stable->reason why there is a lack of mountains and there is a plateau surface (75%);dramatic dropoff to the ocean->few harbors and lots of waterfalls African landforms
snow in winter months->tourism-benefits mostly Morocco; elevation=9,000-13,000ft.; sort of arid Atlas Mountains
more lush; elevation=9,000-13,000 ft.; adds variety to animal and vegetation populations Drakensberg Mountains
rich resources -> gold, diamonds, bauxite; major bauxite exporter:Guinea Guinea Highlands
ore for aluminum bauxite
volcanic origins; source of the Bantu migrations; thrived for the Iron Age (`1500BCE); ancient culture hearth Adamawa Highlands
East Africa -> South Africa; Bantu language still dominant in East and South Africa Bantu Migration
volcanic origins; most tectonically active area of Africa; East Africa is separating; coffee Ethiopian Highlands
elevation,tropics, volcanic soil; originated as a crop and was domesticate; native coffee
Mt. Kilimanjaro; symmetrical conic shapes. not part of chains; Mt. Kenya; Mt. Elgon; East Africa separating -> Great Rift Valley Isolated Volcanic Peaks of East Africa
19,340 feet; Tanzania; stands on its own; tallest peak, permanent snowcap; snowcap has been disappearing because of global warming-> projected to be gone by 2025 Mt. Kilimanjaro
chunks of land sinking down because of crust separating rift valley
Lake Rudolf (Lake Turkana); Lake Albert; Lake Edward; Lake Kivu; Lake Tanganyika (largest in area and depth); and Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa) The Rift Valley Lakes of East Africa
grabens; lakes tend to be very deep- lake volume as a result of depth The Rift Valley Lakes of east Africa
downward faulted block of the earth's crust where lakes are located graben
Africa's largest lake in terms of surface area; not a rift valley lake; not formed by tectonic movement; reflection of drainage patterns Lake Victoria
White Nile and Blue Nile join at Khartoum in the Sudan
world's longest river; exotic stream; flows from a humid area to a dry area; lifeblood of Egypt: built a dam to regulate flow (Aswan High Dam); reservoir created loss of land, loss of soil fertility, salinization of soil, stagnant water Nile River
attracts parasites and disease; snails carrying a flatworm that can cause schistomiasis (bilharzias)-draining nutrients , bleeding of internal organs and death stagnant water (Nile River)
stream doing something unusual; flows from a humid area to a dry area exotic stream (Nile River)
Soviet Union funded, Egypt did not pay back; created Lake Nassar Aswan Dam (Nile River)
Mediterranean Sea creeping up the Nile River; effects on soil salinization
moist area in Niger River Delta; inland delta may occur; empties into Gulf of Guinea; large reserves of of oil and natural gas Niger River
may run dry in course due to dry season; deposits sediments and fertile soils-lots of green inland delta (Niger River)
hydroelectric development; Kariba Dam (cooperative effort, multiple countries sharing funding and the output); flows into Lake Kariba; Victoria Falls (The Smoke that Thunders) Zambezi River
dropoff in elevation- one of the famous features- one of the great natural wonders of the world; one mile wide; named after British Queen Victoria; natives changed name Victoria Falls (The Smoke that Thunders) (Zambezi River)
societies date back farther than anywhere else;no written tradition;had oral tradition; 1500 yrs. ago-central W. Africa-ancient Ghana:know the most about b/c of contact w/ Arab and Berber traders from N. Africa;the very beginnings of the slave trade route Africa's Ancient States
made treks on camel caravans across the Sahara Desert; traded cultural, technology, Islam; 10 degrees north latitude Islam dominated and Arab dominated; ethnic division- also traded salt, gold, ivory, ebony; very beginnings of slave trade route Arabs and Berbers (Africa's Ancient States)
Cross-Saharan route(beginnings of slave trade);E. African Route-most substantial until late 19th century;Trans-Atlantic Route-established by Europeans,most significant;1400-1800:damage estimates 11-60 mill.-who made it to Americas and died along the way The Slave Trade and the Damage Done
Euro. made contact w/ Forest Ppls;engaged in slave trade;colonial U.S.-$,agri.,plantat.;wanted to enslave young males-broke up families;Tri. Trade-Euro.,Afr.,col. Ame.,packed into ships,huge # to Brazil and the Carib,based out of the mouth of the Congo R. Trans-Atlantic Route
dates back to slave trade; began in late 1800s; "the scramble"- wanted gold, God, and glory-primary reason was exploitation; new powers- Germany and Italy:civilizing the Africans; "White man's burden"; solution:(1884-1885) Berlin Conference The Age of Colonialism and Imperialism
Otto Von Bismarck- German chancellor came up w/; set boundaries for imperial countries in Africa- France, Great Britain, Belgium, Spain, Italy, Germany, Portugal; U.S. sent reps. but did not want part in Africa The Age of Colonialism and Imperialism
sizable holding; adapted to local areas and cultural diversity; indirect and direct rule; protectorate system The British
sign treaties a/ some rulers to keep up day-to-day administration and allow British to come in occasionally indirect rule (The British)
large number of British colonists in an area- British had more control over an area direct rule (The British)
ppl asked Britain to protect them from other imperialists and even British colonists- Botswana and the Bushmen, the Harmless People- Kalahari Desert protectorate system (The British)
N.W.Africa-none s. of the Congo;Mission civilisatrise;created elite to run col.-hierarchy(Algeria-closest to France&largest French col. pop.-close proximity,similar climate,&small native pop.);investments in infra.(rds,rr,edu.)& influence of Roman Cathol. The French
modernize native Africans w/ French culture- noble and righteous thing to do; created a local elite; civilizing mission Mission civilisatrise (The French)
first colonial presence; sailed around Africa and set up ports; no longer power when scramble began; small islands and Southern West and East coast; assimilaado/assimilation The Portuguese
assimilation;strong authoritarian rule but didn't have intermarriage btwn. Portuguese & natives-allowed natives to become Portuguese citizens-never intended countries to become independent-created trouble when time for independence came around assimiladao (The Portuguese)
1 colony(Congo);private colony of King Leopold II(took $ out of private accounts for the colony);admin. was most brutal(5-15 million died)of any imperial country;1908-Parlia. took colony away from Leopold;paternalism;broke into 6 colonies; Civil Wars The Belgians
condescending; taught how to farm for profit paternalism (The Belgians)
stay very brief;sizable holdings-Togo,Cameroon,German East Africa(Tanzania),Rwanda-Urundi(Rwanda & Burundi),German South West Africa(Nauribia),Union of South Africa; colonies taken away after WWII,League of Nations Mandate;given to other imperial counties The Germans
superimposed boundaries;Organization of African Unity(AOU);balkanization;lack of industrial development;economic dependence on mother country;imbalance of trade;1960-preparation for independence The Legacy of Colonialism/Imperialism
desertification in the Sahel(growing southward) from overgrazing; rural-to-urban migration- moving to cities because of famine/desertif.->slums& overcrowding;tropical deforest. in Congo River Basin&Madagascar-loss of biodiversity,endangerment,& extinction Current Issues in Africa
more damage than slave trade;35 mil. infected;pandemic;spread of disea.-heterosexual;life expectancy dec.(Botswana);"brain drain";E. Africa&Uganda hit hardest in 1980s;S. Africa&Swaziland-currently hit hardest;anti-retroviral drug "cocktails";socialdise. HIV/AIDS
close relationship w/ U.S.-1st non-European country to recognize U.S. independence;big issue w/ Western Sahara-tried to fully annex, claimed Spain stole, withdrew from AU Morocco
Spanish colony(Spanish Sahara);independence in 1976-Spain withdrew;wanted to get Spanish out(Polisario);Mauritania and Morocco invaded; essentially Moroccan territory; world's largest deposits of phosphates-could secure 40% of world's supply Western Sahara
top of French hierarchy;French assimilation;substantial French pop.(expatriate pop.)-pressed France to keep this country;Civil War(War for Independence)1954-1962;Charles de Gaulle withdrew his support from French pop.;abundant reserves of oil &natural gas Algeria
peaceful;pol. stability;Mediterranean agri.&tourism;ancient Carthage ruins;Star Wars;Changes:instability,lack of opp.WikiLeaks-U.S. didn't really back gov., dictator stepped down Tunisia
once poorest country; Khadafy in power(Jekyll&Hyde of Middle East)-rogue state,funded internat. terror.,Pan Bombing,tried to make country investments(Great Man-made River Project from Kofra Oasis),pop.unhappy w/,refuses to step down(CivilWar),air strikes Libya
pop.density$distr.-96%on4%of land;long-staple cotton&rice-major crops;30yr. dictator;Camp David Accords-Anwar Sadat-peace w/ Israel;Mubarak-brutal&oppress.,against radical Islamic fund.,protests in Cairo,named son as successor,has stepped down Egypt
largest in Africa-could split;straddling regional boundaries(superimposed);Muslim maj. in gov.&Christ. min.-Civil War for 40 yrs.; S. min. voted to split away-gov. (Khartoum will recog);W. regions-Darfur-ethnicity diff. (Arab v. Black)-genocide The Sudan
common qualities-mostly large, low pop. density, semi-arid climate, livestock, grazing, ranching, nomadic herding, rapid growth, desertification, Islam ;Ethiopia is exception to almost all qualities The Sahel
had to give up all claims to Western Sahara-too much $-trying to spend 40& of GDP occupying Western Sahara Mauritania
draws name from ancient empire-totally removing colonial influence; home to Timbuktu-thrived during cross-Saharan trade, Europeans cut out of trade loop Mali
landlocked country; part of French West Africa; made lot of investments-rail network; capital city (Ouagadougou) important rail hub; going through pol. unrest- cutting off privileges to military; relationship w/ Cote d' Ivoire instability spreading Burkina Faso
U.S. (Bush) claims Iraq was getting uranium from; France gets uranium from here Niger
Libya tried to invade;disrupted from Darfur refugee crisis-millions crossed over-hard to take care of;can be exploited-recruitment tool-shatterbelt Chad
exception to many Sahel rules; relationship w/ Eritrea; Christian kingdom for 200 yrs.;1936 Italian invasion-Mussolini wanted to reestablish Roman empire; independent during colonialism/imperialism Ethiopia
lumped in w/ Ethiopia after WWII-previously a colony when ethiopia was a kingdom-broke away in 1993-change in boundary- broke OAU charter-annexation; not a velvet divorce- Ethiopia landlocked wanted Red Sea port Eritrea
former French colony-strategic location; is a French military base-allows U.S. to use during War on Terror to monitor E. Africa and Arabian peninsula; 1998 Kenya and Tanzania U.S. Embassy bombings-country valued for allowing U.S. occupancy Djibouti
failed state(broken gov);British Somaliland(acting independent for 20 yrs.);Italian Somaliland(acting independent);rest controlled by warlords;Mogadishu-capital city&"central" gov.;Indian Ocean-piracy hijack oil tankers holding for ransom-lack of opportu. Somalia
a lot of different societies(diverse); highlands-tropical forests; mango trees West Africa
Dakar-French W. Africa colonial administration Senegal
super-imposed boundaries;British wanted access-British imperialism on the Gamba River;Senegambia(Senegal and Gambia)tried to form a loose confederation that only lasted a few years and went away The Gambia
Portuguese imperialism;Bolama archipelago(group of islands)-unique social system-one of world's last remaining matriarchal societies but disappearing and changing b/c of Muslim and Christian missionaries Guines-Bissau
major bauxite exporter-large bauxite resources in the Guinea Highlands; 1958- independence-French colony-independence now option-cut ties w/ France;assistance from Soviet Union-took a marxism route-set back economic system- abandoned this route Guinea
founded by freed British slaves;still a British colony atmosphere;indigenous tribes still resided there when slaves arrived-divisions and instability-civil war;blood diamonds and child militias Sierra Leone
founded by freed America slaves;remained independent during colonial period; close w/ U.S.-influences;rubber plantations;indigenous tribes still resided-divisions and instability-civil war;blood diamonds and child militias Liberia
cacao production-major producer;1960 independence-ruled by Felix Houphouet-Boigny-success story during his rule;death-power vacuum-civil war;Abidjan-Paris of Africa-largest city-French administration; recent violence-France stepped in Cote d' Ivoire
cacao producer;sub-Saharan-African indep.(Kwame Nkruman indep. leader)1st black indep. leader-critic of imperial.-leader of the entire cont.-Ghana's 1st pres.-overthrown(1966)-period of instability;1981-Jerry Rawlings-promised democr.-peaceful trans. Nigeria
oil and natural gas deposits; per capita income ranked highly in Africa, but distribution of wealth is bad, very few individuals are wealthy and the rest are poor Cameroon and Gabon
consists of several islands;former Spanish colony-Spanish Guinea;benefits from oil deposits Equatorial Guinea
affected by Darfur refugee crisis;bizarre regime-1970s-Jean-Bedel Bokassa(Emperor Bokassa I)-renamed country Central African Empire-coronation very extravagant(all French aid for one year)-corruption-France got him out of power; instability recently Central African Republic
center for French Equatorial Africa;capital-Brazzaville-critical city during WWII-Free French Resistance held their mtgs. there against Germans-brief capital of France Congo Republic
resource,variety of landscape&hydroelectric potential;Belgians ruined;independence in 1960;Joseph Mobutu(Sese Seko)power for 30 yrs.(1965)-worst kleptocracy-resistance mvmt.-built up army w/ Rwanda refugees-led by Laurant Kabla-supported by Rwanda& Uganda Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mobutu renamed Zaire;exiled 1997;Kabila-power;Rwanda&Uganda wanted land but denied;began backing new resist. mvmt.; Kabila had allies:Namibia,Angola,Zimbabwe-"Africa's First World War"-Kabila assassinated-son-power;instability&bad leadership-shatterbelt Democratic republic of the Congo
German imper.;Hutu&Tutsi divisions;Belgium League of Nat. Mandate-Belgium took over-favored Tutsis(min. rule);pres. of both nations killed-Genocide(1994)-many died in weeks;noone intervened;Tutsis took power;1996 Burundi War-more fighting btw. the groups Rwanda and Burundi
British imper.;1971-Idi Amin Dad overthrew Milton Obote-critic of British presence;sig.S.Asian min.(eco. success.);allow hijack plane to land in Entebbe-pol.embarrass;1979-attacked Tanzania-overthrew Idi Amin-exiled into Saudi Arabia;unstable-rebel groups Uganda
reliant on tourism b/c of savannas; many species threatened b/c of poaching; Serengeti national Park; home to Mt. Kilimanjaro Kenya and Tanzania
stable democracy for 40 yrs.; one of best credit ratings; diamonds(Debswana);HIV/AIDS- one of Africa's best free anti-retroviral drug programs Botswana
industrialization;large eco.;gold&diamonds;gold-dutch around Cape Town-found gold-British kicked out & Dutch relocated;diamonds-Kimberly 1980s farmer found-Boer Wars;Botswana,Lesotho,Swaziland,Namibia eco. tied to;Da Beers-control diamonds;indep. in 1910 Republic of South Africa
white min. regime-apartheid;tight police state;Nelson Mandela-S.A's 1st black pres.; perforated state(Lesotho)& kkind of Swaziland Republic of South Africa
Created by: sm1696